If you’ve ever tried troubleshooting your home network or setting up a new router, you must have heard of IP address or IP for short.
This post will explain more — in layman’s terms — about this type of address, IPv4 vs IPv6, and help you find out yours at any given time.
But first, hit the GO button in the speed test below. You’ll immediately see an IP address at the lower-left corner of the test window, under the name of your current Internet service provider (ISP). That’s your WAN IP address. Keep it in mind.
Dong’s note: I originally published this post on Feb 15, 2018, and last updated it on May 6, 2019, to add relevant information.
Table of Contents
What is an IP address
IP stands for Internet protocol. IP addresses are how devices identify themselves and talk to one another over the Internet or within a local network.
When you surf a website or browse a network computer, you access a particular IP address. A meaningful domain or computer name — such as dongknows.com or Server — is just a helpful way to mask that address so that we humans can remember.
By the way, binding an IP address with a meaningful name is the job of a DNS server.
A device can’t get connected if it doesn’t have an IP address, which is uniquely assigned to each network member by a DHCP server (your router). In other words, you can’t have two devices sharing one IP address in the same network and expect them to work correctly, if at all.
(To avoid an IP conflict, refrain from manually assigning a static address to a device.)
Within a local network, generally, the IP address of each member device remains the same for the duration it is on and connected. When you restart the device, its IP address might change unless you choose to reserve the same address for it by binding the IP with the device’s MAC Address.
IPv4 vs IPv6
There are two versions of Internet protocol, IPv4 and IPv6. The former is the most popular and generally the default connotation of an IP address. (You’ll need to call the latter as IPv6 address explicitly). The truth is, the popularity of IPv4 is why we need IPv6.
Though IPv6 is newer and has been available for a few years. Generally, though, for the most part, we’re still dealing primarily with IPv4 now and long in the future, if not forever.
Internet protocol version four (IPv4)
IPv4 uses a 32-bit pool of addresses. As a result, a typical IPv4 address consists of four groups of three-digit numbers with a dot (.) in between, like this one: 192.168.010.002
You can omit the leading zeros in each group in an IP address, but each group must retain at least one digit. That said, the address above usually appears as 192.168.10.2
When you change a number, we have a new address, so mathematically, IPv4 can produce 4,294,967,296 — four billion and then some — addresses.
While that seems like a lot, there are about 10 billion people globally, and one of us can have more than one device. IPv4 will inevitably run out of addressing space at some point.
And that brings us to a few terms that seemingly have nothing with those numbers mentioned above.
WAN vs LAN vs NAT
To conserve the addresses, IPv4 is available at two levels: Wide Area Network (WAN) and Local Area Network (LAN).
At the WAN — or Internet — level, the address is always unique at any given time. Generally, each website has a WAN IP address. At your home, your router (or gateway) has your WAN IP — the one you found out at the beginning of this post.
The router then creates a sub-level LAN network with a different set of local (or private) IP addresses for other devices, like your computers or tablets, to use.
Effectively, this allows multiple devices to access the Internet via a single WAN (or public) IP address, instead of each having a WAN IP of its own. The router does that via network address translation or NAT.
That said, in your home, other than the router, the rest of the devices use LAN IP addresses that are unique only within the home network.
So you might find a computer at home that has the same LAN address as another at your friend’s. This duplication is possible because the two are “shielded” behind each home’s router’s unique WAN IP address.
This shielding also has another bonus. Devices connected to a router are behind a layer of protection from the outside world. Depending on the router in use and how you configure it, you can keep the entire network safe from identity thieves and other online threats.
By the way, the use of NAT is so effective that I believe IPv4’s address pool will suffice for a very long time in the future. (Effectively, NAT allows for a whole large group of people to share a single unique WAN IP instead of each having to have one of their own).
That’s not to mention many existing IPv4-only devices will last ages more and need to be supported.
So IPv4 is not going away anytime soon, if at all. In any case, you can always choose to use it within your local network. But, still, we need something more robust, and that’s the slot IPv6 fills.
Internet protocol version six (IPv6)
IPv6 uses a much larger 128-bit pool of addresses. A typical IPv6 address includes 8 groups of four characters (numbers or letters), divided by colons (:) and looks like this: 2001:0cd8:85e6:0000:0000:8e2c:0450:8733 or 2001:cd8:85e6:0:0:8e2c:450:8733 (leading zeros can be omitted).
While still finite, the total number of IPv6 addresses is exponentially higher than IPv4’s.
Specially, we get the following total of IPv6 addresses:
(That’s 340 trillion trillion trillion and then a couple of hundreds of trillion trillion more.)
At this level, it’s safe to say we’ll never run out of addressing space. And that’s great but can also bring about some privacy concerns. The reason is IPv6 means there’s no need to conserve the addresses anymore.
IPv6 and privacy concerns
Among other things, the IPv6 address assigned to each device at any given time can now be unique globally — universally, in fact. In other words, IPv6 addresses are generally always the WAN addresses.
Consequently, when your computer connects to the Internet using IPv6, it’s exposed to the outside world. Thus, folks on the other end — like the website you visit — can trace back directly to it, instead of the router, like the case of IPv4.
As a result, among other things, they can potentially tie certain online activities to a specific user. It’s not that easy and there are ways to minimize the risks — there’s no need to get all worried up — but still, the unique IP can imply a lot of things.
Currently, all home networks still use IPv4, with some also using IPv6 alongside. Most home routers support IPv6, but few service providers, if at all, use this new protocol exclusively.
You can choose to disable IPv6 at the router level or an individual device most of the time. And you should do that — which causes IPv6 to stop at your router — if you don’t want to deal with the new protocol or have privacy concerns.
How to find out your local IP addresses
Again, a local IP address belongs to a device within your home network, and we’re talking mainly about IPv4 here. By the way, you generally can change the scheme of your local IPs via your router’s interface.
How to find out the IP address of a Windows computer
- Click on the Start button then type in cmd then press Enter. The Command Prompt will appear.
- Type in ipconfig or ipconfig /all then press Enter. (The latter command reveals more information.)
Now you will see the local IP address (both IPv4 and IPv6) of your computer and the Default Gateway address, or your router’s. By the way, if you use the ipconfig /all command, you’ll also see the MAC address (shown as Physical Address).
Pro tip: Opening the Gateway IP address in a browser (like Chrome) will take you to your router’s web interface (most routers have one). Among other things, you can use the interface to change the IP settings of your network and find out the IP address of all connected clients in a network — more blow.
How to find out the IP address of a Mac computer
For Wi-Fi users:
Click on the Wi-Fi icon (top right) while holding down the Option key. You will see a menu with loads of information about the connection, including the IP addresses of your computer and the router.
If your Mac connects via a network cable, then do this:
- Click on the Apple icon (top left) and then System Preferences.
- Find the Network icon and click on it.
- Click on the current connection. Here you’ll find the information you need.
How to find out the IP address of any device in a local network
This part applies to a network with multiple connected devices, and you want to find out the IP address of any particular one among them.
This trick is helpful when you need to configure that device — be it a printer or an access point or an IP camera — using the computer you are using. It’s also useful when you want to know the IP of another computer in the network that you’re not using.
To figure out the IP address of another device in the network, you need to have access to the network’s DHCP server — in most cases, that’s the router. Here are the steps:
- Log in the router’s web interface using its IP address — see the Pro-tip above.
- Navigate to the LAN section of the interface and then the DHCP server section. Some routers have a network map that shows the connected clients and their IP addresses.
- Here, you’ll see the list of connected clients. Most of the time, they have their names listed. If not, you can always find out which one is which by their MAC address.
Knowing a device’s IP means you can access it via the address. If the device has a web interface — most printers and Wi-Fi access points do — you can open this interface via its IP address.
Extra: When and how to reserve an IP address for a device
Reserving an IP address (or a DHCP address) binds a device’s MAC address with an IP address. The router will keep that particular IP for that specific MAC address from then on. So, every time the device connects to the network, it will get that same IP address.
This setting is helpful in situations where you don’t want the device’s IP to change. Examples are when you use a network printer, a network security camera, or a server of any kind. When the IP changes, the application you’ve set up with the particular device might not work anymore. It’s always so in the case of port-forwarding.
While you don’t need the reserve the IP for all connected clients, it doesn’t hurt if you do so, either.
The steps to make an IP reservation vary from one web interface to another, but you can almost always do that at the place where you can view the list of connected clients or the network map.
Most home routers — those from Asus, TP-Link, D-Link, Netgear, and Synology — allow you to do that via a click. With others, you might have to enter the MAC address and the IP address manually.
Final notes on the WAN IP address
The WAN IP address is the unique address that represents your entire home network to the Internet. For this reason, it’s known as your public IP address. You can instantly look up your WAN IP address at the top of this post. Or you can Google “What’s my IP.”
Generally, your service provider assigns the WAN IP address to your home router (via the modem), and you can’t change it.
Note that this public address tends to change once in a while in most cases unless you pay for a static IP, which is expensive.
That said, you can’t just write it down and expect to be able to dial home when you want. To keep tabs on your WAN IP — when you’re away from home — you need to use a Dynamic DNS service. And that deserves a different post entirely.
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11 thoughts on “IP Address Explained: What It Is and How to Quickly Figure out Yours”
I am getting both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses from my home router.
When I configure DHCP IP Reservation, do I reserve both IPV4 and IPv6 addresses for my client device?
That depends, Roberto. But generally, IP reservation, Dynamic DNS, and port forwarding are applicable only to IP4. Also, you should disable the use of IPv6 in your local network — there’s no use for it and it only makes your device more susceptible to privacy risks.
I very much want to be able to use my AX-92U’s USB port to access the connected SSD drive from outside OTG, (i.e., as a NAS). When I try to set it up with my choice domain (whatever.asuscomm.com) I repeatedly get an error,
‘invalid IP address’.
Between my NTT (FTTH) router (192.168.1.1) to the WWW and my ASUS AX92U (192.168.2.1) sits my ISP’s (SoftBank JP) router which assigns the IPv4 address to access WWW.
WWW<=(ftth) NTT (192.168.1.1) (LAN) <= (WAN) Softbank JP (LAN) <= (WAN) RT-AX92U (192.168.2.1) (I will also change to a lucky number :-))
(I wish I could attach a photo or diagram as a picture says a 1,000 words)
Per your article here and other 'WiFi Router USB: The 1st Solid NAS option' port for NAS function, it seems I am missing something or not understanding something properly. 'Invalid IP Address' means I can not use ASUS' DDNS' service at all? I would think not. Thanks much. Jerry. Tokyo.
That means your router doesn’t get a real WAN IP, Jerry. This post on DDNS will explain this further.
Thanks for having a place where I can find as much info as I need for any situation. I would start with one article and I would find myself exploring even more info.
If I’m reading the things correctly (pretty new at all the info about setting up a mesh system down the road (from a pitiful extender), does the Gateway’s IP address represent the Gateway’s router, which is their WAN IP? Is it this address that I need to make sure the new router does not have the same if I’m going to set up the new router in Bridge Mode? Do I change this IP before I enable Bridge Mode?
Generally, Laura, a router’s (or a gateway)’s default IP address, the one you can use to access its web user interface, is called the “Default Gateway” address. (NOT “Gateway’s IP address” — note the apostrophe). The word “Gateway” in this case has NOTHING to do with what a gateway is.
And no, that’s NOT its WAN IP, which changes. But yes, from outside (the WAN side), you can use its WAN IP to access its interface, too, if you turned on the remote management — more here.
Again, when talking about a router, keep this in mind:
1. Gateway IP address (or default IP address) is referred to the IP address of the router itself, which is unique locally. It represents the fact the router is the HOST of a network.
2. WAN IP address: It’s the IP address the router gets from the ISP (or any Internet source including another router). It represents the fact the router is a MEMBER of a larger network outside of the one it hosts — the world wide web.
That said, I’d recommend you read this post (and others) again and get the definitions down. You’re getting close. Using names arbitrarily will make it impossible for anyone to know what you’re talking about.
How can i cloan a router and modem my girlfriend lives to change the Wi-Fi password on me yes I have 100 foot Ethernet cable lol still not log enough awhile back our 5g stop working and she only uses 2 g could i take my old 5g router and Modem they are the same I just stop paying the internet when she moved in so I still have my router and modem is there away to take it out to the garage and hard wire it some how with out knowing the Wi-Fi password she thinks she’s got all the power haha and she does and I have 2 sets one left over from my old internet I’m not even sure I own and 2 that I do . So do internet companies know when your use there equipment to go go gadget around my crazy wonderful girlfriend I just wanna game Maybe 10 percent more lol so those are my questions how to clone the 5g router And they already know what you’re gonna say but then does sm alone she would know we’re talking stage five level Klinger wouldn’t have it any other way so she won’t notice it’s moved even tho it hasn’t spit out a signal in months get take the ip and Mac loaded up into mine and access the internet wirelessly but still with a Ethernet cable she may have wit but I know I can put smart her on this one know more hijacking’s of the Wi-Fi password to get what you want lol there is wills so therefore we there is way sag com router and arris modem
Thanks for the explanation. Its very usefull. I have a question regarding the IP address for use in home networks. Did you recommend to use the standard 192.168.1.xx or it is recommend for security to start with different range that the ones that comes in a router. Is there any issue, Let me know your comments and suggest.
Sure, Hector. Technically, it doesn’t matter, but personally I’d change 1 into something else, like your lucky number — mine is 13 :). That way, you can avoid conflicts in some cases, and always know for sure if a device get the IP from your router’s pool.
I thought it was interesting when you explained that an IP address is how a device can identify itself over the internet. If I remember correctly, someone recently told me that people can buy and sell IP addresses if they want to get a specific one. It would be interesting to learn more about how this process of buying and selling works.
Among other things, it works by not spending time and spamming the audience of a website with the business’s link, Henry.