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Home Wi-Fi Network Explained and How to Build One From Scratch

This post will help almost anyone set up a home Wi-Fi network from scratch, including those without networking know-how. If you’ve never worked on a router before — or don’t even know what it is — you’re at the right place.

Already in the know? This can still be a fun read.

A bit of a warning: This is a very long article, so put aside some time for it.

Dong’s note: I originally published part of this post on February 15, 2018, and updated it on April 30, 2020, with a great deal of additional up-to-date and relevant information based on readers’ questions and requests.

Network Cable
One of the first things you need to know about a network is this RJ45 cable.

📑 Table of Contents

Home network basics: It’s wired vs Wi-Fi

Generally, a home network includes wired and wireless parts. You can see the former, such as network ports and cables. The latter, the Wi-Fi part, requires a bit of imagination.

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Between these parts is the hardware: You’ll have a modem + a router, (or gateway), and maybe a switch. So, the first thing is you need to know which is which and what each does.

Understanding wired hardware: Ports and cables

One of the first things you’ll run into when dealing with a home network is likely the network ports.

These are holes that you can plug a network cable into. Physically, these ports all look the same, but they can be quite different in what they do and in their speed grades.

Extra: BASE-T vs SFP+

When it comes to wired networking, we generally talk about the BASE-T or BaseT type network connection — the name refers to the wiring method used inside the network cable.

Best among Multi-Gigabit Routers: The Asus RT AX89X 10Gbps
A 10Gbps SFP+ port (right) next to a 10Gbps Base-T port.

Once in a while, chances are you’ll also find the SFP or SFP+ (plus) port type, which has limited home use — it’s mostly for enterprise applications — but its networking applications share the same principles as Base-T.

SFP stands for small form pluggable and is the technical name for what is often referred to as Fiber Channel or Fiber.

An SFP+ port can connect at either 1Gbps or 10Gbps — the older version SFP can only do 1Gbps. The two share the same port type. That’s all you need to know about this standard. Base-T is the most popular by far.

Generally, you can get an adapter to use a BaseT device with an SFP+ port, but in this case, compatibility can be an issue — a particular adapter only works (well) with the SFP+ port of certain hardware vendors.

Generally, you’ll find network ports on the back of a router. This is the most important device in a network. (More on what a router is, below).

There are two main network types, WAN (or Internet) and LAN. Most routers include one WAN port and a few LAN ports.

The WAN port tends to have a different color and is separate from the LANs for easy recognition. So what do they do?

TP Link Archer AX6000 Router Network Ports
A typical router for a home Wi-Fi network. Note the blue WAN (Internet) port. The rest of the ports are LANs which are part of the router’s built-in switch.

WAN port

WAN stands for wide area network, which is a fancy name for the Internet. This is the port you use to hook the router to an Internet source, like a modem. (More on modem below). The port on the Internet source itself is also a LAN port.

LAN port

LAN stands for local area network. It’s generally a port type that hosts local devices.

Specifically, you use them to connect wired devices, like desktop computers or printers, or game consoles, to your home network. Devices connected to a router are part of a local network.

A router tends to have more than one LAN port, but if you have many wired devices, you’ll run out of them fast. To add more, you need a network switch.

But before that, let’s find out a few extra things with the network ports on a router.

Extra: Dual-WAN and Link Aggregation

Some routers can support two Internet sources or Dual-WAN. In this case, it can have two WAN ports (or it can turn one of its LAN ports into a WAN) or use a USB port to host a cellular dongle.

A Dual-WAN setup increases the chance that your network remains online during outages (failover). Alternatively, you can combine the two Internet sources to get better broadband speeds (load-balance). The latter case is only suitable when the two WAN sources are of similar speeds.

Link Aggregation, also known as bonding, is where multiple network ports of a router aggregate into a single fast combined connection. Typically, you can have two Gigabit ports working in tandem to provide a 2 Gbps connection.

Many routers from known networking vendors have this feature. You can have Link Aggregation in WAN (Internet) or LAN sides. The former requires a supported modem — again more on modem below). And in the latter, your wired client also needs to support it. Most NAS servers do.

Link Aggregation is also available in the failover or load-balance configuration.

Network switch

A switch is a device that adds LAN ports to a local network. (The LAN ports on a router are actually part of the router’s built-in switch.)

A switch comes with multiple LAN ports. You connect one of them to a router, and now the rest of the switch’s ports will work just like those on the router itself.

So, a switch always loses one of its ports to connect itself to an existing network. That said, you want to get one that has the same number of ports as the number of wired devices you want to add to the network, plus one. Or just get a switch with plenty of ports to spare.

Generally, switches differentiate between themselves by the number of ports and their ports’ speed — more below. And then, there are PoE, unmanaged, and managed switches in case you’re interested in finding out.

Extra on switches: Unmanaged vs managed vs PoE

You’ll note what type of switch one is via its name. For example, the TP-Link TL-SG116 is a 16-Port Gigabit Unmanaged switch. So what is an unmanaged switch?

Unmanaged switch

An unmanaged switch adds more ports to a router, and that’s it. Plug it in, and you’re good to go. All of its ports work equally.

This type of switch is a perfect fit in a home or even an office. In this case, you just need to get one with the number of ports (the more the better) and the speed (the faster the better) needed — more on network speeds below.

Managed switch

On the other hand, a managed switch comes with additional networking features, such as VLAN, traffic prioritization, filtering, virtual network, and many more. In other words, you can make the ports do different things.

The more the switch can do, the more expensive it gets — as expensive as tens of thousands of dollars. And you will need to configure these features manually.

For this reason, generally, only big businesses would need this type of switch. In a home, the router is your managed switch. (You can understand a home router is a combo box of a managed switch plus the routing function.)

That said, getting a managed switch for your home can cause issues unless you know what you’re doing.

By default, though, most, though not all, managed switches work in unmanaged mode if you don’t do anything — so there might be no real issue in using one. But that is not a sure thing and in this case, the extra cost might be a waste.

PoE switch

PoE, or Power-over-Ethernet, is a feature where a switch’s port can power a PoE device. You can find both managed and unmanaged switches with PoE capability.

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Again, it’s always good to get a fast PoE switch. However, if your PoE device does not require high speed, such as an IP camera, then a slow (Fast Ethernet) PoE switch will do.

Common network port speeds: Gigabit vs Fast Ethernet vs Multi-Gig

You might have heard of Gigabit. Currently, that’s the most popular network standard speed grade, which is generally used to classify a device. For example, a switch with Gigabit ports is known as a Gigabit switch.

Other than that, we also have two more speed grades, including Fast Ethernet and Multi-Gig. Let’s check them out.

Fast Ethernet

Despite the name, Fast Ethernet is actually not that fast. It caps at only 100 megabits per second (100Mbps) — that’s one-tenth of the Gigabit speed.

(Fast Ethernet has another slower mode that’s only 10Mbps. For the most part, Fast Ethernet is slowly fading away, with most new computers and devices supporting Gigabit as the minimum.)

But 100Mbps is not that slow, either. To put things in perspective, generally, a letter you see on the screen needs eight bits or one byte.

So 100Mbps means you can deliver 12,500 letters per second. This page you’re reading is made of some 40,000 letters and would require less than three seconds to transmit via Fast Ethernet.

By the way, that 100Mbps is more than fast enough for most streaming services. For this reason, many new streamers, such as the Xfinity Flex, still come with this port.


Gigabit is the most popular wired networking standard right now.

A Gigabit port can deliver 1 gigabit per second (Gbps) — that’s 1000 megabits per second (Mbps), or 125 megabytes per second (MB/s).

At this rate, you can transmit a CD worth of data (some 700MB) in about 6 seconds. Pretty fast.

Netgear RAX120 Port
Note the multi-gig ports on the back of this Netgear RAX120 router.

This is the latest wired networking standard. It’s called Multi-Gig because it can handle, well, multiple gigabits at a time. There are three Multi-Gig grades, including 2.5Gbps, 5Gbps, and 10Gbps.

The term “Multi-Gig” generally also means that any faster port can do all of the slower speed grades when applicable.

(This is mostly to distinguish itself from the SFP+ port type mentioned above which can only do either 10Gbps or 1Gbps.)

For example, a 5Gbps Multi-Gig port can also work at 2.5Gbp or 1Gbps, but it can’t connect at 10Gbps or slower non-grade speeds, like 3Gbps or 1.5Gbps. Like all connections, the actual real-world rate will vary.

So, does a Multi-Gig port work with a Gigabit port? Well, yes, but that brings us to port types and network cables.

Port types and network cables

All network ports share the same port type, which is 8-position 8-contact (8P8C). This port type is more widely known via a misnomer, the Registered Jack 45 or RJ45. So we’ll keep calling it RJ45.

RJ45 Network Port
The RJ45 connectors on a network cable with the array of pins the 8P8C naming refers to.

This port type works with all RJ45 network cable types, including CAT5e, CAT6, CAT7, and likely future revisions. It’s a network cable when it has an 8P8C connector at each end.

You can generally expect any network cable to deliver 1Gbps (Gigabit) to up to 100 meters (328 feet) in length.

So, if you need to expand your network really far out, it’s a good idea to put an active device — like a switch — in between. If not, expect the speed to degrade.

All cable types mentioned above can also handle Multi-Gig — and they all work interchangeably.

Here’s the distance (length) in which each type of network cable can deliver up to 10Gbps:

  • CAT5e: 45 meters (148 feet)
  • CAT6: 55 meters (180 feet)
  • CAT6a: 100 meters
  • CAT7: Over 100 meters

So, for virtually all homes, the popular CAT5e cable will suffice. But it doesn’t hurt to run higher-grade (and more expensive) cables.

(If you’re interested in running network cables, check out this DIY network wiring post.)

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The final speed of a mixed standard setup

By the way, if you plug a Fast Ethernet (100Mbps) device into a Gigabit port or even a Multi-Gig port, it will work. That’s because wired network devices can connect interchangeably regardless of the speed grades and cable types.

However, in this case, the connection speed between a pair is always that of the slowest party involved. Just like real-life traffic, a bottleneck device will impede the final flow rate.

Specifically, if you use a CAT5e cable with CAT6 ports, the connection is now of CAT5e-grade. Also, when you plug a (1) Fast Ethernet device, a (2) Gigabit device, and a (3) Multi-Gig device into a Gigabit switch, the link speeds between them at any given time will be the following:

  • Between 1 and 2: 100 Mbps (the fast Ethernet device is the bottleneck)
  • Between 1 and 3: 100 Mbps (Ditto)
  • Between 2 and 3: 1 Gbps (The Gigabit equipment is the bottleneck)

This final speed rule applies to all types of network connections, both wired and wireless.

Modem vs Router vs Gateway

OK, now that you have understood ports and cables, you’re probably proficient with plugging a network cable into a network port.

That’s the easy part. The thing that happens afterward is a whole different ball game. And that brings us to the significant types of home networking hardware you’d plug a network cable in, namely a modem, a router, or a gateway.

So what are they exactly? You’ll find out below. One thing is for sure: I wouldn’t have to write this part if folks didn’t have the habit of calling these three arbitrarily or interchangeably. They are different things.

A home Wi-Fi network uses either a set of cable modems (left) and a Wi-Fi router (middle) or a residential gateway (right).

What is a modem?

The word actually is more like MoDem. It’s an acronym for a device that works both as a modulator and a demodulator. A modem converts computer data signals into those of the service line and vice versa.

The service line can be anything, but predominantly it’s either a telephone line or coaxial TV cable. That’s the reason why you likely have a DSL or Cable modem, respectively.

(Or if you use Fiber-optic Internet, the “modem” is now just an optical network terminal receiver, called ONT or PON.)

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It’s fairly easy to identify a modem. It’s a device that always has one service port to connect to the service line, that comes into your home from the utility pole outside, and one network port. This network port is where you connect the WAN port of the router, as mentioned above.

Some cable modems also have a phone jack for phone service, and others might have an additional network port for WAN Link Aggregation, as mentioned above.

But generally, when you see a service port in a device, there’s a modem in there. Also, check the label; you might find the word “Modem” on it.

Generally, a modem can bring the Internet to just one wired device that connects to its LAN port. But we sure have more than one device at home, and that’s why we need a router.

What is a router?

Every home network must have a router. As mentioned above, a router always has one WAN (Internet) port to connect to the Internet source.

Tip: Generally, you can use a router with any Internet source — any modem that is — as long as the source has a network port.

On top of that, a router also has a few (usually four) LAN ports for wired devices. (These ports are part of the router’s built-in managed switch.) Most, if not all, home routers also have a built-in Wi-Fi access point — it’s a Wi-Fi router.

As for how to identify, a Wi-Fi router tends to have a few antennas, though some might have internal ones. But generally, if you look at its label, you’ll see the word “router” on it.

The job of a router is to create a network that allows multiple devices to talk to one another locally. On top of that, it also shares the single broadband connection of the Internet source (the modem) to the entire network.

Physically, a router does this via its multiple LAN ports (of its built-in switch) or a built-in Wi-Fi access point — more on Wi-Fi below. Internally, the sharing is taken care of by the router’s NAT and DHCP functions, which I explained more in this post on IP addresses.

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A router + Internet receiver (modem) = a gateway

A gateway is just a combo device that includes a router and an Internet terminal device (often a modem, but can also be an ONT for fiber optic) in a single hardware box.

That said, a gateway will generally have a service port plus a few (usually four) LAN ports. It tends not to have a WAN port.

If you use equipment provided by the service provider, chances are it’s a gateway. In this case, the company technician might call it a “modem,” which, though partly true, contributes to the confusion.

You can also buy a retail gateway. The Netgear Orbi CBK752 is an example — it’s a cable gateway. Considering nobody bothers to use the correct terminology, Netgear actually calls it a Cable Modem Router.


Now that we’ve gone through the visible hardware part of a network let’s find out about the invisible part, the Wi-Fi.

Understanding Wi-Fi: Distance vs signal strength

The only thing you can literally see about your Wi-Fi network is the antennas, and that’s only true when you don’t have a router with internal ones. On a mobile device, that’s almost always the case — the antennas are blended in with the device’s chassis.

And then what happens in between those antennas are pure mysteries.

How Wi-Fi works

The details of Wi-Fi can be overwhelming — more about that in this post about different Wi-Fi standards.

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But all standards, including the latest Wi-Fi 6 and Wi-Fi 6E, share this same principle of radio broadcasting:

You have a broadcaster (your router) that emanates radio signals outward and a receiver (your laptop) that catches those signals, using a Wi-Fi adapter to form an invisible link that can transmit data between the two. One broadcaster can handle multiple receivers at a time.

(That is when we use the most popular mode of Wi-Fi, called infrastructure. There’s another mode, ad-hoc, where you can connect two Wi-Fi receivers directly to each other. But that’s a bit too much technical detail.)

That said, Wi-Fi is a wireless alternative to network cables. In other words, when a device connects to a router using Wi-Fi, it actually uses an invisible network cable, so to speak. The length of this “cable” is the router’s Wi-Fi range.

One of the most popular questions I’ve gotten is the specific range of a Wi-Fi router. Let’s find out!

Wi-Fi range in theory

The way radio wave works, a broadcaster emits signals outward as a sphere around itself.

The lower the frequency, the longer the wave can travel. AM and FM radios use frequency measured in Megahertz — you can listen to the same station in a vast area, like an entire region or a city.

Wi-Fi uses 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz, 6GHz frequencies — all are incredibly high. As a result, they have much shorter ranges compared to radios. That’s not to mention a home Wi-Fi broadcaster has limited power.

But these bands have the following in common: The higher frequencies (in Hz), the higher the bandwidth (speeds), and the shorter the ranges. It’s impossible to accurately determine the actual range of each because it fluctuates a great deal and depends heavily on the environment.

That said, below are my range estimates of home Wi-Fi broadcasters, via personal experiences, in the best-case scenario, i.e., open outdoor space on a sunny day.

Note: Wi-Fi ranges don’t die abruptly. They degrade gradually as you get farther away from the broadcaster. The distances mentioned below are when a client still has a signal strong enough for a meaningful connection.

  • 2.4GHz: This band has the best range, up to 175ft (55m). However, this is the most popular band, which is also used by non-Wi-Fi devices like cordless phones or TV remotes. Its real-world speeds suffer severely from interference and other things. As a result, this band now works mostly as a backup, where the range is more important than speed.
  • 5GHz: This band has much faster speeds than the 2.4GHz band but shorter ranges that max out at around 150 ft (46 m).
  • 6GHz: This is the latest band, available with Wi-Fi 6E. It has the same ceiling speed as the 5GHz band but with less interference and overheads. As a result, its actual real-world speed is faster. In return, due to the higher frequency, it has just about 70% of the range, which maxes out at about 115ft (35 m).

Some might consider these numbers generous, others will argue their router can do more, but you can use them as the base to calculate the coverage for your situation.

Wi-Fi range in real-life

In real-world usage, chances are your router’s Wi-Fi range is a lot shorter than you’d like. That’s because Wi-Fi signals are sensitive to interferences and obstacles.

While the new 6GHz band generally doesn’t suffer from interference other than when you use multiple broadcasters nearby, the other two bands have a host of things that can harm their ranges.

Also, note that the Wi-Fi ranges (and signal penetration) are generally the same on broadcasters of similar specs, a vary (model by model) only in sustained speeds and signal stability.

Common 2.4 GHz interference sources
  • Other 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi broadcasters in the vicinity
  • 2.4GHz cordless phones
  • Fluorescent bulbs
  • Bluetooth radios
  • Microwave ovens
Common 5 GHz interference sources
  • Other nearby 5GHz Wi-Fi broadcasters
  • 5GHz cordless phones
  • Radars
  • Digital satellites
Obstacles and signal blockage

As for obstacles, walls are the most problematic since they are everywhere. Different types of walls block Wi-Fi signals differently, but no wall is good for Wi-Fi. Large objects, like big appliances, or elevators, are bad, too.

Here are my rough estimations of how much a wall blocks Wi-Fi signals — generally use the low number for the 2.4GHz and the high one for the 5GHz, add another 10%-15% to the 5GHz’s if you use the 6GHz band:

  • A thin porous (wood, sheetrocks, drywall, etc.) wall: It’ll block between 10% to 30% of Wi-Fi signals — a router’s range will be that much shorter if you place it next to the wall.
  • A thick porous wall: 20% to 40%
  • A thin nonporous (concrete, metal, ceramic tile, brick with mortar, etc.) wall: 30% to 50%
  • A thick nonporous wall: 50% to 90%.

Again, these numbers are just ballpark, but you can use them to have an idea of how far the signal will reach when you place a Wi-Fi broadcaster at a specific spot in your home. A simple rule is more walls equal worse coverage.

With the understanding of networking hardware above, let’s find out the best way to put them together. Again, a home network includes wired and wireless parts.

Network Cable Wiring
Running network cables and creating ports around the house can be a fun project.

Best practice for a wired network

A single router (or gateway) is the only wired network you’d need with many homes. But if you have a larger home or one with multiple floors, it’s a good idea to think a bit bigger.

First and foremost, when possible, it’s best to run network cables around your home. In this case, pick a small room, or a closet, to serve as the IT room. Generally, this room is where the Internet service line enters the house.

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From this room, run a network cable to each other room of the property where you intend to use a wired device (including a Wi-Fi broadcaster).

Note that you can’t split a network cable the way you do a phone line. The only way to turn one network cable into multiple ones is via a switch.

Get a patch panel

For better management, in the IT room, you should use a patch panel to organize all the terminals of the network cables that go to different places.

Network Cable Wiring
The Wiring of network cables behind a patch panel.

A patch panel is generally a collection of network ports, where each port is a keystone RJ45 jack that you punch down the wiring of a network cable’s end.

You’ll note that each port on the panel has a number. Now, at the other end of the cable, use another keystone RJ45 jack and mark it with the same number. Now you know which port goes to which room of your house.

Make sure you get a panel that has enough room for all the cables you’ll use. A switch is also necessary if you run more cables than the number of ports on your router.

Of course, you can skip the panel and connect a cable directly into the router, but that’s a bit of a mess.

The basic wired network diagram

Once you’ve run all the network cables, here’s the simple diagram to install your wired devices:

Service line -> Modem + Router / Gateway -> (Switch) -> (Patch Panel) -> (more switches)-> Wired Devices.

Simple Network
A typical simple home network includes a Wi-Fi router and a modem (no patch panel, no extra switches).

Best practice for a Wi-Fi network

Before you can have a Wi-Fi network, you must have a wired network, which, again, might just be the router itself. After that, considering how Wi-Fi works, as mentioned above, the following are a few things you should do to get the best Wi-Fi experience.

1. Hardware placement

All home routers use omnidirectional antennas. As a result, wireless signals are broadcast outwardly as a sphere – more like a horizontal ellipse — with the router in the center. So if you place your router by the side of your home, half of its coverage will be on the outside.

Wi-Fi broadcaster placement: Dos

Here are the best places to put your Wi-Fi router.

  • Center: As close to the center of the house as possible. Since, in most cases, the Internet drop is at a corner of a home, you can run a network cable from the modem to the router.
  • High ground: It’s best to place your router above the ground. If you have a two- or three-story home, put the router on the second floor. If it’s a single-story home, place it on the ceiling or top of furniture, like a bookshelf.
  • Out in the open: Avoid putting your router in a closet or behind a large, thick object — such as a TV or a refrigerator. Generally, you want to set the router in an open space.
  • Vertical antenna position: That is if you want to signal to go out horizontally. Use the antennas in the horizontal position if you want the signal to go out like a vertical ellipse. Note, though, the antennas’ positions generally don’t matter much.
Wi-Fi broadcaster placement: Don’ts

Here are a few examples of where you shouldn’t place your Wi-F router:

  • A closet
  • Behind a large appliance like a fridge or a TV
  • The laundry room
  • A basement that has thick walls or below a thick concrete floor
Hardware placement for a mesh Wi-Fi system

In a large home, a single router might not cut it, and you’ll need multiple broadcasters to form a Wi-Fi mesh system. Generally, a single router can cover about 1,800 ft² (170 m²). Each extender (or a mesh point) can extend another 1,500 ft² or so.

In this case, it’s best to use network cables to connect the hardware units. If that’s not possible, consider the following:

  • Place the broadcasters of the systems at a good distance (not too far, not too close) one another. Generally, this distance should be about 30 ft (9 m) to 50 ft (13 m) if there’s a wall in between, or up to 75 ft (23 m) if there’s a line of sight.
  • Minimize the number of walls or obstacles in between them.
  • When there are two or more satellite units, place them around the main router to form a star topology — find out more on this post of mesh systems. You want to minimize the time signals have to hop before they get to the end device.

Note that a wireless mesh configuration is generally not good for real-time communication applications, such as gaming or video/audio conferencing. For that, you should consider getting your home wired or connecting the device via a network cable.

2. Get your own equipment

You generally have more control and a better network when using your modem and router instead of using equipment from your Internet provider.

If you use cable Internet, replacing the ISP-provided gateway with your own also saves you from paying the monthly rental fee.

See also  How to Replace a Cable Gateway with Your Own Modem

3. Use network cables when possible

Again, when you need to extend your network, it’s best to run network cables to connect hardware units.

If you have a large home, consider using multiple hardware units connected to the main router via network cables to make sure you get the best coverage and the fastest speed.

Though far from perfect, Powerline adapters are a great alternatives to running network cables.
Though far from perfect, Powerline adapters are great alternatives to network cables.

When running network cables is not an option, you can try Powerline adapters (which turn the electrical wiring of your home into network cables).

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Note that a Powerline’s performance varies greatly depending on your home’s wiring and will not work with power strips or surge protectors. They are generally much less reliable than network cables and unsuitable if you have high-speed Internet or intend to use Wi-Fi 6.

4. Schedule a periodical restart

Just like a computer, a reboot helps the router refresh and work better. While most routers can work 24/7, it’s a good idea to give it a restart once or twice a month.

Many routers, such as those from Asus, have a reboot scheduler within their interface that you can use.

Types of home Wi-Fi routers

Routers for a home Wi-Fi network come in all shapes, sizes, and costs, but as far as this post is concerned, there are only two types: Those with a web user interface and those that don’t.

The former gives you a lot of customization and settings, while the latter doesn’t give you much more than naming your Wi-Fi network and picking a password for it.

Routers without a web interface

Routers without a web interface, like the Google Nest Wi-Fi router or Amazon Eero, use a mobile app for the setup and ongoing management, and they all require a login account with the vendor.

They are convenient to use and easy to manage, but in return, they require the Internet to work, connect to the vendor at all times, and, therefore, pose a privacy risk.

I call these “data mining” routers. They are not my type.

Routers with a web interface

The good news is that most routers-virtually all those from real networking vendors — have a web interface. As a result, all you need is a web browser (Chrome, Firefox, Edge, and so on) to work with them.

And since all computers and mobile devices come with a browser, you can manage them right away without downloading an app.

For convenience’s sake, some of these routers also come with a free mobile app, but it’s always better to handle them via web UI.

Home Wi-Fi network: Router setup

Generally, a network consists of a few hardware pieces, the Internet box (a modem or a gateway), a router which we’re trying to set up, and of course, your computers. Following is how you connect them.

Netgear CM600 Cable Modem 12
Wi-Fi router setup: The router (top) needs to connect to the Internet source (a modem) using its WAN (internet port).

Connecting the hardware

Connecting the hardware is when you put different devices of different roles together to form an Internet-connected local network. This step is quite simple. It’s like plugging an appliance into power and turn it on.

Other than that, watch out for what goes into what is in the right order and ports.

1. Connect to the Internet source

Plug the router’s WAN (Internet) port to an Internet source (such as your cable modem or a gateway) using a network cable.

If you use a modem (or a gateway), connect its service port to the service line.

Note: I assume that you’re using a modem (or gateway) that has already been activated. If it’s a new device entirely, you will need to call the service provider to activate it first.

2. Connect your computer to the router

Plug another network cable into your computer’s LAN port and one of the routers. Most routers have four LAN ports; you can use any of them.

If you have one of those new laptops that don’t have a network port, you can get a network dongle for just a few bucks.

If using a network cable is not possible, don’t worry. You can use the router’s default Wi-Fi information — generally found on its underside.

Linksys Velop MX5 Bottom
You generally can find the default Wi-Fi network on the underside of a router.

3. Power on

Plug all hardware devices into power and turn them on. First the modem, then the router. In that order.

And that’s it. You have finished with the hardware setup part. In fact, connect all wired devices to the router’s LAN ports, and you’re game. For the Wi-Fi network, though, you need to do a few more things.

Getting your home Wi-Fi network up and running

To configure a Wi-Fi network, you need to first log in to the router’s web interface. It’s where you can make all the changes.

1. Log in the web interface of the router

You can access a router’s (or gateway’s) interface using a web browser (such as Firefox, Chrome, or Safari) from a connected computer.

If you’re setting up a new router the first time you launch the browser, you’ll likely automatically get to the web interface, where you can follow the setup wizard.

VendorFriendly URLDefault IPUsernamePassword
AT&T Gatewayn/a192.168.1.254n/aAccess code printed 
on the hardware unit
(Xfinity) Gateway
Most Cable ModemsN/A192.168.100.1admin (or blank)admin
Default Interface access address popular of routers/gateways/modems by vendors.

But you can always manually log in to the router’s interface by pointing the browser to its friendly URL or default IP address. The table above lists the default login info of most routers. Can’t find it? You can always quickly figure out its IP yourself.

Extra: That dreadful privacy notice

When logging into a router’s web interface, you’ll likely run into a privacy error notice where the browser suggests that the website you’re accessing is potentially not safe, like the screenshot below.

Privacy Notice
The Privacy Notice you can ignore. This one is on the Chrome browser.

The reason is that out of the box, the built-in web server of a router doesn’t have any mechanism to support the now-required HTTPs protocol, which, among other things, has to be signed with an external party.

This is similar to when you get a brand-new car — you can’t prove that it’s legit the normal way since it has no license plate or registration. But you know that it’s safe to get in.

The point is you can safely ignore this notice and proceed to the interface. Different browsers have slightly different ways to do that, but they all require you to click a few extra times. Pay a bit of attention, and you’ll find out.

Once you’ve logged in for the first time, most new routers require you to create a new username and password during the initial setup before you can access its full interface as well as the Internet.

Once you’ve logged in, the rest is rather self-explanatory. Though different networking vendors tend to have different interfaces, they all share similar sections, including Wi-Fi (or Wireless), WAN, LAN, Admin, etc.

Most importantly, all of them have a password for the interface that you need to change right away from the default value.

2. Change the router admin password

This password keeps your network safe from hackers. Pick a strong password that’s hard to guess. You’ll need to use this password only when you want to access the interface. Make sure this password is different from the Wi-Fi password.

3. Customize your Wi-Fi network

A Wi-Fi network includes a Wi-Fi name and a password. Like any proper name, the Wi-Fi network’s name is public. Everyone will see it. That said, pick one to your likings.

The password, on the other hand, needs to be a secret. Choose a hard-to-guess one but easy to type in, especially on a small screen like a printer. Generally, a string of random numbers (and letters) will do. Again, make sure this password is different from the router’s admin password above.

Use the most common encryption method — currently WPA2 or WPA3 — for the password. Note that some existing Wi-Fi clients won’t work with the newest WPA3. You might want to avoid using that or use it in the mixed WPA2/WPA3 mode.

Most routers have more than one band. They are Dual-Band or Tri-Band routers. In this case, you can use SmartConnect, where the router lumps all bands together in a single Wi-Fi network (SSID). Or you can manually create an SSID for each band.

The Home Wi-Fi Network Setting Page of the ZenWiFi AX
The ZenWiFi AX XT8 shares the same web interface as that of previous Asus routers. Note its 5GHz-2 band’s default setting for the dedicated backhaul role.

4. Initialize the Internet connection

Depending on the router, you can do this on the Internet or WAN or Setup part of the interface. For most Internet connections, you can leave it at Auto and let the router detect the setting by itself.

A few Internet plans, especially those with static WAN IP addresses, will require you to type in the settings correctly. In this case, you need to consult your provider.

Other than that, you can play with different interface parts to figure out additional features and settings.

Running into problems? Knowing how to reset a router will help.

Home Wi-Fi network maintenance

A router works non-stop for days or even months on end — it might run into problems once in a while. So, knowing when to restart and also how to reset it will come in handy.

TP Link Deco X60 Router
The Reset button tends to locate on the underside of a router.

Router reset

Before you can do a reset, you need to know what it exactly is.

Reset vs restart

Everyone knows how to restart a router. Just unplug it from the power and then plug it back in. Some routers also have a power on/off button for this.

Restarting helps solve some issues, and just like with a computer, it’s a good idea to restart a router once in a while.

On the other hand, reset erases all the router settings and brings it back to the state when it left the factory. So resetting can be quite dangerous. Among other things, it’ll cause your current Wi-Fi network to disappear.

For that reason, it’s a good thing that it takes a bit of work to perform a router reset. But first, let see when you’d want to reset a router.

When to do a router reset

Again, you’ll lose all the settings after a router reset. So don’t do this for fun. You only do that when finding yourself in one of the following situations:

  • You lost the admin password to access its web interface, as mentioned above. A reset will restore that to the known default value.
  • You want to re-setup your home network from scratch or suspect that someone has hacked your router.
  • The router has issues that a restart doesn’t solve.
  • You no longer need it (before you give it away).

There are two ways to reset a router: using the reset button or via the web interface. You can reset a router as many times as you like. It doesn’t physically harm the hardware.

Router reset via the reset button

  1. Locate its reset button. It’s almost always on the router’s back or its underside. This button is usually recessed to prevent users from pressing on it by accident.
  2. Plug the router into power, wait about a minute for it to boot up fully, then use a pin (or a pointy object) to press and hold the reset button for about 10 seconds. As a result, the router will reset and restarts. You’ll notice that if you look at its status light.

If you want to make sure the router has reset, wait a minute or two for the router to fully boot up again to see the Wi-Fi network is gone, and the default Wi-FI network is now available.

Extra: The 30-30-30 router reset

With some old routers — those of Wi-Fi 4 and older — you might want to try the 30-30-30 reset method to ensure the router is fully reset. Here’s how:

  • With the router fully powered on, press and hold the reset button for 30 seconds.
  • Without releasing the reset button, unplug the power and keep holding the reset button for another 30 seconds.
  • Plug the power back in and keep holding the reset button for another 30 seconds.

In all, you press and hold the reset button for 90 consecutive seconds in this method.

Router backup and reset via the web interface

If you still have access to the router’s web interface, you have the option to back up its settings before the reset.

The Reset button on an Asus Router's web interface.
The Reset button on an Asus Router’s web interface.
  1. Log in to the web interface, as mentioned above.
  2. Navigate to the reset function. The table below shows how you can find the Reset function within the web interface of popular routers. Generally, you can see this function in the Administration or System section of the interface.
  3. Here you can backup the settings in case you want to restore the router’s current condition after a reset.
  4. Click on the button (or link) to proceed with a reset. The process will take a few seconds to complete.
VendorsReset location in the web interface
AsusAdministration (left menu) ->  Restore/Save/Upload Setting (tab) -> Restore (button)
D-LinkManagement (top menu) -> System Admin (submenu) -> System (toggle tab) -> Restore (button)
LinksysTroubleshooting (left menu) -> Diagnostics (tab) ->Reset (link)
Netgear Advanced (tab)-> Administration (left menu) -> Backup Settings (submenu) -> Erase (button)
SynologyControl Panel (icon) -> System (left menu) -> Update & Restore (tab) -> Restore factory default settings (button)
How to locate the Reset function on popular routers.

Router firmware update

Firmware is the operating system of your home Wi-Fi router. That said, you should perform a router firmware update once in a while. New firmware helps improve performance, security and often brings in new features.

The web interface is where you can do a router firmware update.
The setting backup and reset section of a Synology router.

Generally, if a router has a mobile app, you can use the app for the firmware update. Most new Linksys routers also have an automatic firmware update function, which you can turn on in step 3 below.

Five steps to perform a router firmware update

  1. Look for the latest firmware. The easiest way is to Google the router’s model and “firmware,” such as “Asus RT-AC68U firmware”. Most of the time, the first result is the place where you can find the latest firmware.
  2. Download the firmware. In most cases, the firmware is inside a zip file. You need to open this file and drag the firmware out to a location you know, such as the desktop, on your computer.
  3. Login to the router’s web interface and navigate to the firmware update section. The chart below shows how to find this section in the interface of popular routers. Note that in this section, you will also be able to configure the auto-update (if available) or perform the router’s self-update process. Some router will give you a notification as soon as you log into its interface if there’s a new firmware available.
  4. Proceed to upload the new firmware.
  5. Confirm the update and wait for the process to complete.
VendorFriendly URLDefault IPUsernamePassword
AT&T Gatewayn/a192.168.1.254n/aAccess code printed 
on the hardware unit
(Xfinity) Gateway
Most Cable ModemsN/A192.168.100.1admin (or blank)admin
Default Interface access address popular of routers/gateways/modems by vendors.

Note that the update process takes about 5 minutes and can’t be interrupted. Consequently, if you if unplug your router during this process, you might damage it. Also, during this firmware update, you have no access to the Internet or your local network.

Final thoughts

Setting up and managing a home Wi-Fi network can be intimidating, mostly because we can’t see the router’s wireless signals. But that’s where the web interface comes into play.

Once you’ve worked with one router’s interface and understand the general idea of how a network functions, you can work on any router. And nothing feels more satisfying than getting the home Wi-Fi network you want by yourself.

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73 thoughts on “Home Wi-Fi Network Explained and How to Build One From Scratch”

  1. Great article.

    Any recommendations about MOCA adapters vs running ethernet cable when trying to expand your wifi connections?

    • MoCA is complicated, Rob.

      1. It’s not universally available.
      2. It can be fragmented (just because you see the outlets doesn’t mean they are actually connected behind the wall).
      3. It won’t work well if you also use the cable for the service’s signals.

      So for fast speeds, it’s not a sure thing. It might work for one and not others.

  2. I would love to locate my router towards the middle of the house and have Ethernet jacks wired in. What stops me is that the switch and patch panel are also located in the same corner of the house with the cable modem. I assume that to place the router at a jack elsewhere would require running an additional cable back to the switch and patch panel. Is there a way around this?

    • Yoy need an additional broadcasters (an access point) where you’d want the router to be, OR you need TWO cables going to the router, David. One for the WAN from the modem and the other for the LAN going back to the switch at the patch panel. Modem -> router -> switch the the way to go. Any other way will be either very complicated or expensive or both.

  3. Hi Dong,

    I’m new at this and spent a good amount of time reading a bunch of your informative posts. Please let me know if this is possible.

    I just bought the RT-AX86U and plan to make it my main router and I want to place on my 2nd floor of my 3 storey home as that’s where we spend most of our time. The modem is downstairs and this is where I plan to place our older GT-AC5300 router as a node. I only have a single Cat5E cable between the two routers. I would prefer to keep everything wired if possible.

    My thought process tells me that I should have 2 Cat5E cables going to the 2nd floor that way I could come out of my modem into the WAN port of my RT-AX86U main router then out of the LAN port back downstairs and into the LAN port of my older GT-AC5300 router setup as a node.

    Is there a way to do this with only one cable and a Gigabit switch? The other option would be to use the Cat5E to come out of the modem into the WAN port and then use the 2 5G band to connect the node….but this wouldn’t be as fast of a connection obviously.

    Any help is much appreciated!

      • Yes I would like to set up a Aimesh system and would like to take advantage of the WiFi6 speed and features. I’m leaning towards selling the GT-AC5300 now and buying a 2nd WIFI6 router that way I can use the single networking cable already installed by coming out of the modem into the WAN and then out of the LAN into my node router on the 2nd floor. Little more expensive but I should be able to sell my GT-AC5300 for a couple hundred still. Believe I read on one of your posts that if you mesh a Wifi5 & Wifi6 you won’t be able to take advantage of everything WiFi6 has to offer? Thanks again for your help you probably have some of the more informative articles I’ve found on the net.

  4. My ISP is UK provider Talk Talk (AKA Walk Walk as it can get very slow or stop frequently). In 2017 I was provided with a D Link DSL 3782. Talk Talk suggest it is their latest router. I was interested in using its single USB port to connect to an external hard drive. DLNA and SAMBA are Enabled and in the USB Settings it says the built in UPnP media server streams music ,videos and photos. What it doesn’t do is allow access to other files such as PDF’s and Word on (at the moment I am using a USB stick) any external drive connected to the USB port. It shows the individual directories where the PDF’s and Word files are stored but does not show the files themselves. If I put a Word file, PDF file, a picture file and an audio file in the same directory on the USB it shows and allows me to access the picture and play the audio file but it is as though the Word and PDF files don’t exist.
    Is there a way around this problem ?

      • Thank you for the information. SAMBA sharing is enabled on the USB Settings page. I did wonder whether Talk Talk were restricting access to audio/video/picture files only in some way as there are simply no other setting changes for USB which can be made when I log on to the router.

        I thought may be best just to get a more modern router and see if the problem goes away and, as you say,it is old USB anyway. Can you suggest a more up to date router at a sensible cost with USB 3 at least ?

  5. I recently bought the ASUS GT-AC2900 and can’t seem to get the maximum tx rate of 1,300 Mbps (5 GHz) on my MacBook Pro, even when I’m right next to the router. I seem to max at 867 Mbps. Are there certain settings I need to enable/disable that can help? Thanks!

  6. Hi Dong, amazing website, tons of useful and educational information, Great and helpful reviews, I am preparing wiring for my new house, my house is two stories each has 4000sq/ft, and total of 9000sq/ft if the yard is included.

    -In the living room I have TV, AVR, NVR, HTPC, and Nvidia Shield.
    (I would like them all to be wired connected to the router for best streaming speed).

    – In a closet under the stairs I will keep the modem, router, NAS, and a switch for the cameras and intercom system.

    – upstairs I have two TV’s in two separate rooms that (I would like them to be wired connected to the router for best streaming speed).

    – If a single unit, I would just keep it under the stairs.
    – If a mesh system, what model and how many units?
    I was thinking of a set of three, to keep the main unit under the stairs, and the other two, each backhaul wire connected to the main, one in the living room and the other one will be in upstairs closet.

    Now I am totally confused of what would be my best router choice and setup , should I go with a mesh system, or single router solution? what type and model?
    price and budget is opened and unlimited.

      • Thanks for the prompt response, RT-AX86U? Why this model in particular? and why dual band mesh system? in this case, I was expecting you to recommend a couple of RT-AX89X backhaul wire connected, (one for each floor).

        What about RT-AX89X with one of these systems?
        ZenWiFi AX XT8
        RBK853 Orbi AX6000

        • Read the reviews and related posts, Nabeel. And any of those you mentioned will work, it’s a matter of degrees. You can’t ask for a short answer and then ask for a longer one, which you can find out yourself by reading the content. 🙂

          • I read both reviews for RT-AX86U and RT-AX89X, I know that both are good, what confused me that you mentioned in the RT-AX89X review “unless you choose to use wired backhaul with it. In this case, it can potentially be the best AiMesh router considering the sheer amount of ports it has” so why RT-AX86U over RT-AX89X.

          • I have Synology DiskStation DS920+ NAS and STEIGER DYNAMICS MAVEN HTPC, both needs to be hardwire connected to the router along many other devices.

            As per your reviews and many others, it’s not recommended to mix dual band with tri band in a mesh setup, would you point to me the best mesh system that would work with RT-AX86U? or should I get three of RT-AX86U!

  7. “The job of a router is to create a network that allows multiple devices to talk to one another locally.”

    I guess you know that isn’t entierly true. You can have a local network without a router. Nodes on a IP-network only needs to be configured correctly (maybe using only Link-local IPv4 addresses), to be able to communicate and usually a DHCP server is used to achieve that. An IP-router does nothing to connect local nodes (those on the same subnet) to each other, the local nodes finds out how to connect to each other by using it’s known: IP-number, the gateway address and the net mask, to calculate if the wanted IP-address is local or not and then use arp and mac-addresses to try to find the correct node.

    In homes you usually use a “WiFi router” to create a WiFi-network through it’s WiFi Access Point functionality (which among other things is used to bridge the wireless and the wired network), and for DHCP and more. A router isn’t really otherwise involved in traffic between nodes on the local network but it’s needed to connect to other subnets and/or Internet. Of course a “WiFi router” does most of what you are talking about, like such things as usually being the DHCP server.

    For an IP-node a gateway is the node to get to the rest of the network’s subnets (if present) and/or Internet. If the IP-address isn’t local it needs to “offload” that traffic to the gateway(Windows) / router(macOS) which in turn forwards the traffic, which most often is sent to the next router, and so on.

    A fiber Internet connection doesn’t contain a modem but usually an ethernet fiber to copper transceiver “box” (and that is sometimes housed in a level 2 router for VLAN handling) and a (level 3 IP-routing) router. I guess a cable modem/router/WiFi-Access Point “combo” (a “cable Wifi-router”) is often used in the US but in all cases a router is the gateway on all IP-networks.

    As far as I understand, modems are bridge devices.

    I hope I didn’t make too many errors incl. spelling errors and I guess you will “bin” all this?

    • Thanks for the input, Leif. As you might have noticed, I didn’t say using a router is the ONLY way to create a network. And yes, a router’s job is to host a home network.

  8. Thank you so much for your swift reply, Dong.

    Did I miss your text? Although I tried to read carefully. I will read them again.

    However I did read that the gateway is a router. As regards the question 8, for instance, I understood the gateway can work only as modem and forward the IP to another router. My intention in Q8 was to have your take on whether it is advisable to omit my gateway as router if Asus makes better work as a router. Hence, I could connect fibre -> gateway (router with NAT) -> Asus XT8 (router with NAT). But if it is possible to connect also fibre -> gateway (no NAT) -> Asus XT8 (router with NAT) -> Asus XT8 (router with NAT), which one of these combinations make more sense? Do I want to use the gateway as a router if I have a better option too? Or are they equal? Even if the gateway has slower WAN-port, for example.

    As regards the switch, I did read that it connects to the LAN port of the router and adds more LAN ports to the router and nothing else. But then I found out there are switches like HPE Aruba 5406R 8-port 1/2.5/5/10GBASE-T PoE+ / 8-port SFP+ (No PSU) v3 zl2 Switch that offer support for VSF, low latency, 10 Gbps ports, excellent security features… and cost over 9000. And then there are switches like TP-LINK TL-SG105 v2 with five 1Gbps ports and costs only 20. That is why in Q7 I asked for advice on switches, namely if should get a switch with at least 2.5 Gbps ports since the Asus XT8 has a 2.5 Gbps capable WAN-port.

    Speaking of a switch, I do not fully understand if the routers know automatically how to take care of everything when connected to a switch. That is, if in router -> switch -> another switch -> router set up the latter router knows to pick up the WAN signal coming through two switches while all the other ports of the switches serve LAN connections.

    As for Q6, after rethinking I conclude it does not work router -> switch -> switch -> router, because then also the latter switch would be just adding more LAN ports for router1 and, thus, everything connected to the latter switch make part of the router1’s intranet. Therefore it has to go router -> switch -> router -> switch.

    • Pete,

      Treat the hardware units as their exclusive role. For example, if you use the gateway as a gateway then it’s (also) a router (because a gateway includes a router on the inside.) But if set the gateway to work as a modem, then now it’s just a modem, forget about other features the gateway might have WHEN it’s NOT used as a modem. Once the gateway works as a modem, the router that connects to it is the FIRST router of your network. As for which to use as what, what makes more sense that is, it’s your choice. In a network, the first router handles the WAN (Internet) connection.

      As for switches, that’s the same, they all add more ports to a router (not a modem). There are MANY types of switches, some can cost half a million dollars (that’s true), but for the home, you just need a regular unmanaged one. Managed switches are a lot more expensive and require configuring.

      Anyhow, here are the posts you should read:

  9. Thank you, Dong, for your kind and helpful answers and references to the other relevant posts. I read them thoroughly and hope to have become more acquainted with the subject.

    That being said, this is how I understood studying your texts accompanied by some questions.

    1) Every intranet needs a router of its own. Since I need to set up two intranets, I need two routers. The Asus units serve that purpose well. The two separate intranets cannot work on the same level of hierarchy though (= cannot both be connected directly to the Internet/WAN connection) but any additional routers need to be chained under the main WAN connected router instead. Correct so far?

    2) The connections in my case should be the following:
    Fibre -> gateway -> Asus1 -> Asus2. Asus1 is hosting intranet1 (main house). Asus2 is hosting intranet2 (rental). Asus1 gets the Internet access directly from the gateway, Asus2 indirectly via Asus1. Did I get it correctly?

    Nevertheless, then there remains the issue of where to physically put the router units (= Asus ZenWifFi AX (XT8)). You see, the fibre + gateway are located in what practically can be described as a closet. Same applies to the rental part: all the cables are gathered next to the electric board behind walls and doors. Since it is a bad idea to put the WiFi broadcaster in a closed environment, what should I do?

    3) Can I run a double CAT6 from the gateway to Asus1 having the other CAT-cable connected WAN(gateway)-WAN(Asus), and the other connected LAN(Asus)-LAN(switch which would be located in the closet where the cables of the wired LAN of the main house are)? If I got it right this should permit me to put the Asus as a WiFi broadcaster into a more meaningful place in the living room and yet to make the physical cable connections in the closet through a switch.

    4) Since a switch only adds more LAN ports and does nothing more, it doesn’t matter whether I connect LAN-cables directly to the Asus unit or through a switch. I can do both. So if a computer (without WiFi and equiped only with a network port) is closer the Asus router or satellite unit than a data socket, there is no need to get the connection specifically via the switch but I can conveniently connect the computer directly to the Asus as well. It doesn’t make any difference whatsoever how the connection is made. Is that correct?

    5a) When connecting the Asus units to one another in order to create the mesh, can this connection be made through a switch (in my case via the switch that I would put in the closet near the gateway) to which also all the other LAN cables would be connected, or is a direct connection from Asus to Asus without any interruptions needed?

    5b) In case the Mesh-satellites need to be connected with a standalone cable and one cable is not long enough, what apparatus do I need to connect two CAT-cables together?

    5c) In general, if a cable is cut and the connecting cable goes through a data socket/switch/something else, does this have a negative effect on speed and reliability? Do more cuts/interruptions mean slower LAN? Is it a priority to always try to get directly with one cable from unit to unit?

    6) When it comes to the rental part, I would need to establish a cable connection between LAN(Asus1)-WAN(Asus2), wouldn’t I? However there is the same issue in placing the Asus as a WiFi broadcaster since the cables for the LAN in the rental part are also located in a closet. Does it work if I put the Asus in an open space near one of the double data sockets, and, connect one of the sockets to Asus’s WAN and another to Asus’s LAN? The other end of the cable connected to LAN would then end up being connected into a switch in the closet what would pass the LAN into all the other cables of the rental. As for the other end of the cable connected to Asus 2’s WAN, how do I connect it to the cable coming Asus1 LAN located in the main house? Does it need a separate standalone cable all the way between the two Asus routers or can it go through a switch: either
    Asus1 -> switch (closet main house) -> switch (closet rental) -> Asus2 -> LAN rental OR
    Asus1 -> switch (closet main house) -> Asus2 -> switch (closet rental) -> LAN rental?

    7) What kind of switch (as for maximizing the speed of the intranet) do you recommend?

    8) It seems the Asus is more feature rich and have better connections (such as the multi-gig port) than my CTS gateway. Can I make the CTS-gateway work only as a modem (no NAT), Asus1 being a router (NAT) and Asus2 being a (sub)router (NAT)?

    9) You had written regarding using the gateway as a modem: ”Connect the WAN (Internet) port of the router — or the primary router unit of your mesh — to a LAN port of the gateway (or the existing router).” Is this correct? Why would I not connect the WAN port of the router to the WAN port of the gateway instead?

    10) Since my CTS FWR5-3105 gateway has only 4 * 10/100/1000Mbps LAN + 1*Gigabit Combo (RJ-45 + SFP) WAN, does it mean I will never get a truly 1 Gig Internet within in my LAN and WLAN even if Asus has the 2.5 Gbps WAN? Or do I get exactly 1 Gig Internet if the gateway works only as a modem and the Asus as the router?

    11) Finally, as regards the WiFi coverage, do the WiFi broadcasters cover air space like a globe or only horizontally for the most part? In my case there is an open staircase at the center of the house. Is it thus a no-brainer to build a mesh system where there would be one satellite upstairs and one satellite downstairs more or less on top of each other? Is the WiFi coverage horizontal to such extent that every floor nonetheless needs its own satellite for the best performance?

    • You missed quite a bit from my texts, Pete. For example, in this post alone, you missed the part (near the top) where I talked about different hardware units. Hint: Your gateway itself is a router, you can treat it like one. Also, you’ll find what a switch does etc. Take another read, you’ll find your questions answered.

  10. Thank you for a very informative article. But how do combine the wireless LAN with a wired one?

    I am facing the following challenge. One fibre connection (1 Gigabit) comes into the house which is divided into two separate parts: the main house + rental apartment. The idea is that the rental apartment and the main house have star topologies of their own and the networks should not interact with each other. The rental apartment has been fully wired by CAT6 cables (and a cable also runs from the star point to where the fibre enters the building (only the cable, nothing is connected yet). The main house is wired only partly. The idea is to provide a wired connection for everything that can be connected (tv sets, computers…) but to have a WiFi with excellent coverage and reliability in both parts. Naturally the speed and capacity of the fibre should be prioritized for the main house.

    The WiFi of the main house is intended to be a mesh system. For the mesh I plan to get 2 or 3 Asus ZenWiFi AX (XT8) units. I hope to have a wired back-haul for at least two of them. The rental apartment is so much smaller that one WiFi broadcaster should suffice.

    The problem how to wire and what equipment do I (still) need.
    The ISP has provided the gateway (CTS FWR5-3105).

    1) Can I first split the WAN connection from the gateway in two through a switch(?) to make a division between the main house and the rental part?
    2) Do I then need two routers between the switch and the two star topologies: “main router 1” for the main house and “main router 2” at the rental part’s star point?
    3a) Is it enough two use one of the Asus units as the router for the main house or do I also need a separate router unit that divides the network for the wired LAN on the one hand and for the wireless LAN (Asus units) on the other?
    3b) If an Asus unit suffices as a sole router for the main house would I then need to bring all the cables of the wired LAN of the main house to where the Asus is, what would be a rather difficult task? It would be much easier to get the cables to the room where the fibre enters the building. Since the space is behind many walls, it does not make sense to put the Asus unit there because it would presumably impede the WiFi a lot.
    3c) Even if the Asus could be used as the router for the main house, could I somehow make everything work by bringing only one cable from the Asus (which would be located at the center of the house) to the room where the fibre enters and whereto it would be easiest to bring the other cables and then connect them there through a switch(?)?
    4) Would one Asus ZenWiFi AX (XT8) work as a single WiFi broadcaster for the rental part? Does it make sense to use it as a stand-alone unit at all? Since buying a two-pack of Asus units is cheaper than buying one single unit, I am pondering whether I should buy 2 two-packs or 1 two-pack + 1 single unit + 1 different WiFi broadcaster for the rental part.
    5) If I manage to wire all the Asus units, is it always an advantage to have a star topology or does daisy-chaining work equally well?

    In the main house I would like to have access to the printer and hard drive through both the wired and wireless network. The rental part should not have access to them.

    • You need to set up two intranets, Pete. More on that here. Or you can think of your rental as the mother-in-law unit mentioned in this post. And this post will help to.

      As for your questions:

      1. No, you can’t split a WAN connection like that. It’s always like this Internet -> Router -> (switch) -> (more routers).
      2. See #1 again. Also, the star topology only applies to a wireless setup. With network cables, you can daisy-chain hardware.
      3abc: Using a cable to connect hardware is the best way to go.
      4. Each unit of the set can work as a standalone router. You can use them as a system or two separate routers. See review.
      5. See #2.

      My advice is to take your time and read my posts. Starting with this one, and also those related ones. You need to understand how things work which can be different from how you think or want them to work. You’re getting there. Good luck!

  11. Hi there – this is a brilliant summary – love it. I had a couple of questions though. With the WAN port – can it handle various internet speeds (100mb/s, 1Gb/s, 2Gb/s) or does the WAN port have a particular limit, based on each model specs? The multigigabit LAN ports that are showing up on the latest routers allow the rest of the network to communicate faster, regardless of WAN? Hope these questions make sense!

    • Yes, Leon, the rated speed of BaseT is generally the “up to” top speed, meaning it’ll work at whatever speed grade available at either end of the cable, whichever slower.

  12. Mesh is hit or miss for me also. My Synology unit at the far end of the house does a wonderful job with mesh. The one across the hall from the router is ignored by all my Apple devices. They don’t even connect to it. I am temporarily getting around that by adding a guest network confined to a lower channel number and with a different login. I log in to the guest network and get terrific coverage from the right device.

  13. I cant believe how directional routers are. I can place one on my TV bench on one end, I can get half the speed at the other end. At one point, I can move it less than a feet and it made a huge difference. I really dunno how to deal with this invisible force, lol. Moving it around testing for “the best locations” doesnt help cause it might be good for some device and bad for others. I cant win. What does it takes to get good range and good speed at all points? Mesh doesnt do it

  14. Thanks Dong, for all your advice. This is the first time in my 4 years of 1GBPs subscription that I am getting even close to advertised ISP speeds on wireless.
    Just an update for anyone who is interested. I reflashed the firmware the Synology RT1900ac (Router mode) . Am now getting 800 MBps with the AX58u in access point mode for any Wifi 6 clients.. 42 clients (mostly IOT devices) connected both wired and wirelessly.
    Although the Synology is the main router, it’s at the basement and a location not used often. I wonder if I have better mileage just changing all the access points to a AX58’s and keeping the status quo on the main router. All Access points are wired with cat 6 or 7 backhaul. Thanks again!

  15. Thanks! Took your advice and I bought a Asus RT-58AX and changed it to access point mode replacing one of the Linksys EA7500s. My iPad Pro went from 200MBps to 800Mbps on a Gigabit connection. For all other devices it was the same speed at about 200MBPs presumably because it they were on Wifi 5. Range is also much better, my daughters room used to get a Tx rate of 10 , it’s now 160. Strangely no improvement for my iphone 11 though. Tempted to try replacing the main RT1900A but afraid it will break the my connection to my Synology NAS and the other Access Points. Something to do when the Mrs is away, in case I really muck up the network!

    • Good to hear and thanks for sharing, Alberto. Replacing the RT1900A will not break anything as long as you set the new router to have the same IP pool. If your NAS supports Link Aggregation, getting an Asus router with that feature, like the RT-AX88U is will improve the server’s network speed by a lot when you have multiple devices access the server at the same time.

  16. I have been following your website for awhile and congratulations on a fantastic site. Great and helpful reviews. I wonder if you could comment if there is benefit upgrading to a MESH setup if one is already networked with a main router and a few APS. I live in a 4 story townhouse with our internet point at the basement. Surviving with a Synology RT1900Ac at the basement with 3 Linksys EA7500s on each floor in bridge mode. All are connected by cat 6 or 7 cables with RJ45 points on each floor. Getting only 200 MBPs on 2×2 clients on wifi and 2.4 GHz band in the basement is almost non existent. Should I change the Synology to a RT2600AC? Or go with Asus AiMesh? I have a few 1 or 2 WIFI 6 devices ….

  17. Thank you for the response and your willingness to share your knowledge. The article recommendation was great. I’m running an Arris SB6190, TP-Link AX-50, and a MAcbook Pro 13″, all purchased in the last 2 weeks. I recently upgraded my internet to 500mbps. I’m getting that speed when wired to the modem. 250mbps when wired to the router. And only topping out around 150mbps when on wifi approximately 30 feet from the router. Should this be expected?

  18. Thanks for your great article. I recently got a TP-Link AX 50 and I’m trying to maximize the speed of the wifi network. All of my devices are ac or below and I have some smart home devices that require 2.4 network. 1. Would you recommend using smart connect? Is there benefits to setting the channel and channel width compared to using the auto settings?

    • Sure, Chris. Glad you’re here. Smart Connect is for the convenience’s shake so that as you move away from the router, you still get connected when the 5GHz band is out of range (this band’s range is much shorter than the 2.4 GHz’s). Generally, the Auto setting works but for more on the channel setting, check out this post.

  19. Hi, Great Article. I do have question. I am looking for your recommendation on what make and model router i should buy. I dont need the router for wifi, i was lucky enough to obtain a cisco wlc 2504 and a few 1852 AP’s from my work. I have an cisco sge2010 48 port switch. I have about 4 Tivo devices, NAS , Plex server and approx 30+ devices. I try to keep as much wired as possible. I currently am using a Netgear Nighthawk R7000 for my router but it keeps “freezing” or “getting hung” and i lose all network connectivity . I believe its due to the network “bandwidth” its dealing with. I had DDWRT on it, reverted back to the latest Netgear firmware, it helped the freezing from daily to about once a week but its frustrating. Logs get cleared every time i have to reboot it so i dont exactly know the cause. So i am looking to replace the router with something that can handle the bandwidth. Thanks.

    • You can get any router, Sean. The issue you described is probably because of the R7000’s hardware. That so, now just get a router that has the feature you like. However, the equipment you inherited is dated and very slow. I’d recommend replacing those APs and controllers with a better Wi-Fi 5 or Wi-Fi 6 system. You can keep the existing wiring and new better APs, like this setup.

  20. In the section around running wires and having a wired back haul you mention powerline adapters but not MOCA. Would MOCA 2+ be a suitable solution for situations where I couldn’t run a wire to an access point or second router?

    • Yes, John. MoCA is only available in certain homes, that’s why. But if you have it, it’s better than Powerline.

  21. Hi Dong,

    I need a router recommendation for gigabit internet in Canada limited to routers with a decent appearance as it will be out in the open (No big black spiders). Wondering if you could advise: Linksys MX5 ($450), Zenwifi XT8 ($620), Amplifi Alien ($500) – if its ever in stock, Unifi Dream Machine ($430). If there are other options I should consider please let me know.


  22. Hi Dong,

    I need a new router but am limited to the aesthetically pleasing ones (Not a black tarantula) as it will be out in the open of my living room. I am in Canada with 1 gigabit internet. What would you recommend out of Linksys MX5 ($450), Zenwifi AX ($620), Unifi Dream Machine ($430), Amplifi Alien ($500 – assuming it ever comes back in stock). If there’s another option you would recommend please share. I have a small home so I do not require a large mesh system.


  23. Dong, really enjoy following your commentaries. Thank you.

    One column I would love to see from your knowledgeable brain is “How to properly setup your home network”. I run a synology router and extra access point, synology nas, and 5 PC/Mac’s . Plus, 35 other various connected devices, TVs’, thermostats, phones, tablest, IP cams, etc, for our family. I suspect this is pretty much normal situation for many families.
    What would be some of the gold standard methods, tips, techniques?

    Many thanks,
    Cary, NC

    • Thanks, Stephen. Looks like you’re doing fine right now! I think I covered all that’s important in this post, so when you have time, check it out in its entirety. 🙂

  24. Very good informative article, Dong.
    2 questions :
    1) how much glass wall blocks signal?
    2) which one better: smart connect or separate SSID?

    • Thanks, V.

      1. This depends on the type of glass, single or double pane, etc. But you can treat it as a thin wall. Tinted glass (which has metal in it) is worse, however.
      2. Neither, they are just different. I’d use Smart Connect, though, for convenience’s shake.

  25. Hello Dong! Great site and advice. I found a typo, under “Home Network WiFi Setup: Connecting the Hardware” Use “consists” instead of “concision”. I was unable to highlight the text and press “Control, Enter” as you suggested in the “About You” area. Keep up the good work!

    • Typo fixed. Thanks, Michael. You should be able to highlight the text and use the Ctrl + Enter though. I checked on that, too.

  26. Is there any way to get rid of the links buttons on the left side of my window? Facebook icon, Twitter Icon etc, all in a heavy red bar. It’s in front of the text. Why? Why put something in front of the text. After trying to read a couple of articles, I’m giving up.

    • Thanks for the feedback, Bruce. That bar shouldn’t be there if it obstructs any text. I guess I didn’t do an excellent enough of a programming job — not knowing tech enough, obviously. I’m going to move it to the right for now. Let me know if that still bothers you. If you will, please also let me know the device you use it on. My guess it’s a laptop with relatively low resolutions, correct? Thanks, and again sorry for the annoyance. 🙂

  27. Actually I was referring to your suggestion from March 21, to my prior post on Feb. 29, that I might need to reduce the router’s power so iPhones and iPads will connect to the external unit. My nice 5mgz signal of 400+ at the router dwindles to a 10-50 across the hall (2 walls) and phones and pads won’t switch their connection to the MR2200ac in that room. I also tried one room further so it’s 3 rooms away, with similar result. Started with wired ethernet backhaul; then tried wireless.

    • Got it, David. It’s probably your iDevices’ fault, David. I think you have to disconnect and reconnect them.

  28. Hi Dong, The Synology SRM will not allow me to reduce the power of the router while it is connected in a mesh. I’ve also tried moving the node another room (and wall) further away but that doesn’t seem to change anything. I’m wondering if I should reset that node with its own SSID and password, taking it out of the mesh setup? i.e. as an access point or extender, since I have a wired Ethernet jack there?? Dave

    • Yes, you can do that Dave, but it defeat the idea of a mesh – part of which is to increase the Wi-Fi coverage, by the way. I’m curious, what do you want to achieve in reducing the unit’s power?

  29. Thank you for the setup. It’s a great intro. I chose a Synology RT2600ac and two MR2200ac’s in a mesh setup with wired backhaul since I already had a Synology NAS. The MR farther away and downstairs works great but the MR2200 closest to the router (RT2600) does not play well with it. That node is across the hall and 2 rooms away from the router. The router can maintain a (slow!!)signal in the room, and when I walk there with an iPhone or iPad, it will remain connected to the router and wireless is slow and unstable because of it. Same thing true in the opposite direction. The unit where I boot the connection stays connected and won’t hand off to the other one. I would appreciate any and all ideas to overcome this. I want to stand in the room with the node and get the great connection it is capable of!

    • Looks like the distance between the two is not far enough for the handoff to take place, David. It’s hard to fix that since I don’t know other details but you can do these.

      1. Make sure all routers have the latest firmware.
      2. Slightly reduce the transmit power of the router a bit. Find that in the Advance area of the Network Center app.
      3. Make sure you enable 802.11k/r. It’s in WiFi Connect -> Wireless ->  Advanced…

      Also note that handoff require the cooporation of the client. And certain Apple devices are terrible with that. Try a Windows laptop and see if that’s still the case.

  30. Dong, there is a typo – you want to connect another Network *CABLE* from the router to the PC, not another network *Router*.
    Good Stuff here, but I want to comment on my situation – I have a smallish house (<1,000 square feet), but the center of my house has a large brick chimney, and the detached garage is cement block. There are signal issues with anywhere I put a single router, so my configuration is to have AIMesh AC5300 master at the very front of the house where most of the activity is, an AC1900 node at the very back of the house in the attic, then an additional AC1900 node running off of Powermesh in the garage so I can have my IoT stuff (music, garage door opener, etc.) be reliable. I'm not yet worried about WiFi 6 but I do wish that ASUS would give me back the 2nd 5Gb band since I'm using wired, and that they would extend the guest network throughout so I could use that for IoT.

      • Nearly a year later, and here I am again… Thinking about Wi-Fi6. I like to keep moving UP in quality. The AC1900s I had were the T-Mobile re-firmware ones, and of course ASUS doesn’t really support that. When they quit working I have been temporarily limited to 1 main router, but that brick chimney is a problem. I’ve considered turning on the AT&T Gateway’s Wi-Fi on one side of the chimney, but that will not be a mesh. Considering moving the AC5300 to one front corner of the attic and putting in a RT-AX86U at the opposite diagonal corner. I haven’t read much about how attic transitions affect the coverage, but it can’t be as bad as the chimney or the cement block basement walls. If the house is only 100′ from one corner of the attic to the other, with plaster or drywall ceilings, would that likely work, or do I need to drill holes in the floor or ceiling to run Cat6a and keep the routers on the main floor? If I was expanding to the RT-AX86U what would be the pros and cons of using that as the Mesh router vs the AC5300?

  31. If you are setting up a router, be very careful about security. As a router only transfers the raw internet from the ISP (Internet Service Provider) to multiple devices that are connected through WiFi. While the firewall is more secure than the router as it is designed in such a way that it could inspect the data packets as well as it filters adds.

  32. Do you have recommended settings for an Asus AiMesh network with an RT 88u as the hub and two other nodes? A wired backhaul is not viable but I’d like to know if any of the settings can be ideally optimized.

    • Generally, the default settings will do. However, you can optimize the network by configuring the SmartConnect rules and roaming assistant.


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