By now, you must have heard of “mesh,” “Wi-Fi system,” or “mesh Wi-Fi system,” and might even have some idea of what they are. OK, they are the same thing. But there’s more than just semantics in this post.
You’ll learn here all about this type of Wi-Fi solution, including when it’s not a mesh and how to build an optimal one for your home. Sometimes, the little things I mention here can make a huge difference.
By the way, let’s face it! Similar to the case of a single router, only you would know which mesh system fits you best — you’re the one who lives in your home and knows what you need. All I can do is lay out the facts.
Dong’s note: I originally published this piece on April 28, 2018, and last updated it on September 2nd, 2021, with additional relevant information.
Mesh Wi-Fi system explained
A mesh Wi-Fi system has many names. Apart from those mentioned above, some also refer to it as a wireless mesh network (WMN). But mesh is a short and sweet moniker. I like it.
No matter how you call it, in a nutshell, a mesh consists of multiple hardware Wi-Fi broadcasters (routers, access points, etc.) that work together to form a single unified Wi-Fi network.
The reverse might not be true, however. Just because you have multiple Wi-Fi broadcasters in a single network doesn’t necessarily mean you have a mesh system.
Mesh has been around for a long time, but it became a big deal when a company named eero — all lower case — announced the original eero Wi-Fi System in February 2016.
Since then, there’s been a home mesh revolution with Wi-Fi systems coming out from virtually all networking vendors. I detailed that in a little brief history in this post of popular mesh brands.
When do you need a mesh
A mesh applies to large homes or offices where a single broadcaster (router) doesn’t deliver enough Wi-Fi coverage.
Generally, it’s best to have just one broadcaster in a home to avoid interferences. In other words, more is not necessarily better.
So, a mesh is not an upgrade to a single broadcaster — it’s a necessary alternative. Other than the coverage, a Wi-Fi system doesn’t solve whatever problems you might have with a single router of the same specs and feature set. (In fact, using multiple broadcasters in close proximity can be a bad thing.)
That said, if your place is 1800 ft2 (167 m2) or smaller, you probably only need a standalone router — it’s probably not time to think of a mesh yet.
But this depends a lot on the layout of your home, the number of walls, and where you place a broadcaster. Sometimes, a single router placed near the center is better than getting a mesh.
So, think of a mesh when there are areas in your home the current Wi-Fi broadcaster can’t reach. And that can be the case even in a small/medium home if you have to place the router at a side instead of in the middle.
That said, I will talk more about necessary hardware units in the how-to-pick-a-mesh-for-your place section below.
What constitutes a mesh
You need at least two hardware units to form a mesh. One is to connect to the Internet, and the other links to the first one — wirelessly or via a network cable — to extend the Wi-Fi coverage.
These hardware units are called different things by different vendors, such as base stations, access points, nodes, satellites, hubs, mesh points, Wi-Fi points, routers, etc. For the sake of simplicity, let’s call them hubs.
In a mesh, one of the hubs will work as the primary unit that connects to the Internet, and the rest will extend the Wi-Fi and other settings of that unit. To distinguish, I’d call the primary unit router (or main/primary router) and the rest satellites (or satellite hubs).
One of the most important requirements for a mesh is that the hardware units work together to form a single seamless network. On top of that, you can control all of them in one place, like the web interface of the main router or a mobile app.
If you have to manage any hardware piece separately, then it’s not part of a mesh. Below are examples of popular Wi-Fi hardware that doesn’t immediately turn your network into a mesh when put into use.
Non-mesh hardware: Extender vs. access point vs. media bridge
Hardware-wise, using Wi-Fi extenders (a.k., repeaters) or access points (APs) is similar to having a mesh network — there are multiple hubs involved.
In reality, though, they are entirely different. For one, extenders and APs are flexible and will work with any existing network (router), while mesh hubs generally only work specifically with one another or a specific router.
But that’s about the only advantage extenders and APs have over real mesh hardware.
A Wi-Fi extender connects itself wirelessly to an existing Wi-Fi network and then rebroadcasts the signal using a Wi-Fi SSID (network name) of its own. (That’s the reason they are often referred to as repeaters.)
As a result, even when you program the extender to use the same Wi-Fi name (SSID) and password as the router, you still end up with two independent Wi-Fi networks in the same air space.
Among other things, that can cause interference and adversely affect the performance of both. Also, if you change the Wi-Fi settings of the router, you will likely need to reconfigure the extender manually. Else it might get disconnected.
Extenders tend to be terrible at real-world speeds due to signal loss, though tri-band ones are generally less so — more below. And they can be unreliable and a pain to use. In fact, I’ve seen a lot of folks plug an extender in a power socket, and that’s it, thinking it’ll somehow magically make things better.
However, extenders are popular Wi-Fi “quick fixes” since they can give you the full Wi-Fi bars at a location where you used to get low or no bars at all — an illusion of “better Wi-Fi.” On top of that, you don’t need to worry about running network cables.
(By the way, the artificial full Wi-Fi bars might be the reason why folks are lured into calling extenders “boosters.” That’s misleading at best, if not completely wrong. There’s no such thing as a Wi-Fi booster. Please don’t use that term.)
Extra: Extender and virtual MAC address issues
Another odd thing about extenders is that most use virtual MAC addresses for connected clients.
Specifically, devices connected to an extender will register to the network using a random MAC address instead of its own.
Consequently, any features that rely on MAC to identify a device, such as MAC-filtering, IP reservation, Parental Control, and so on, will not work well, if at all.
Certain IoT (Internet of Things) devices also require registered using their real MAC to work. At the very least, the MAC address change will cause the device to get a new IP address each time it connects to the network, and that alone can be problematic.
Depending on the situation and actual hardware, there might be ways to overcome this virtual MAC issue, but the process is quite involved at best.
I’ve personally run into this annoying problem with most extenders I’ve used, including those from major networking vendors (Netgear, TP-Link, Linksys, and so on). The best way to deal with this is not to use an extender.
If you can install network cables, access points (APs) are better alternatives to extenders.
(Note: Some extenders can work as access points and vice versa.)
APs are similar to extenders, with one significant difference is that an AP connects to the main router using a network cable. For this reason, they deliver significantly higher performance than extenders because there’s no signal loss — more below.
That said, an access point must have at least one network port to connect to the router. Some even have more for you to add wired clients to the network.
However, using APs is the best non-mesh choice. In fact, performance-wise, it can be better than using a real mesh in a wireless setup. In most cases, you only need to manually program each AP’s Wi-Fi network (SSID) and password the same, and you’ll get somewhat of a mesh system.
By the way, when using APs (or extenders), keep in mind that it’s always the router that decides the features and settings of your network. So, you’re free to use a router of your choice.
Extra: Mesh system in access point mode
Since most (not all) routers have an AP mode — you can use it just like an access point; what if you put the router unit of a mesh system in this role?
In this case, generally, the entire mesh system still works together to extend the network seamlessly. But you’ll get no features or network settings (provided by the router) out of it.
Again, not all mesh hardware supports the access point mode. Others, like the Google Nest/Wifi, only have this mode when you use the hardware individually (and not as a system.)
Bridge (or media bridge)
Bridge, a.k.a Media Bridge, is a popular role that many Wi-Fi broadcasters (router, access point, extender) support.
In this mode, the device receives an incoming Wi-Fi signal and relays that to a wired device (or devices). A media bridge must have at least one LAN port.
You can think of a bridge as a Wi-Fi adapter for a wired device. In other words, it allows a wired device to connect to a Wi-Fi network using its network port. The more ports a bridge has, the more wired devices it can add to an existing Wi-Fi network.
(Or you can add a switch to a media bridge to increase the number of wired devices it supports. This is not a good idea, though, since all of them will share the same single wireless connection to the main network.)
So, a bridge has little to do with a mesh network because it plays the role of a receiver, not a broadcaster. A bridge will work with any Wi-Fi network. If your existing router supports the bridge mode, that’d be a way you can re-use it when you upgrade your system to a new router.
Extra: Bridge mode in a gateway unit
In a gateway unit, a router+modem combo box, the Bridge mode is a bit different. That’s when the gateway will work solely as a modem and no longer has any router-related function.
You can read more on this post about how to get the most out of ISP-supplied equipment.
How a mesh Wi-Fi network is better (than using non-mesh hardware)
A mesh Wi-Fi network has three clear advantages over extenders or access points.
1. Ease of use
A Wi-Fi system is easy to set up. At most, you only need to set up the main hub; the rest of the hubs will replicate the settings of the main hub.
When you need to change Wi-Fi settings, such as the network name (SSID) or password, you only have to do that on the router unit. The satellites will replicate the change by themselves.
2. Seamless hand-off
In a mesh, it’s easier to have continuous connectivity on your device when roaming from one hub to another, as though there was just one hub involved.
Specifically, as you roam around within a mesh’s Wi-Fi coverage, the device in your hand will automatically switch to the broadcaster with the best signals.
By the way, this works band per band and doesn’t require Smart Connect, where you name all bands as a single network (SSID).
Extra: Notes on seamless hand-off
Don’t take seamless literally. That doesn’t exist.
The client needs to disconnect itself from one hardware and move to another, and there’s always a brief interruption during the process. It’s a matter of how brief.
So, it’s seamless when you don’t notice it. This is a matter of degrees.
(Generally, you will always notice the interruption if you use real-time communication apps — like Wi-Fi calling or video conferencing. In this case, pick a location with strong signals and stay there.)
A few things to keep in mind:
- For seamless hand-off to work, involved hardware devices on both sides (hubs and clients) need to support the IEEE 802.11r, 802.11v, or 802.11k standard. Most Wi-Fi systems and clients support at least one of these. But there’s a chance they don’t feature the same one, so seamless hand-off is not a sure thing.
- It’s the speed that matters. If your connection is fast enough for your task at hand, there’s no need to concern about which node your device connects to.
- Wi-Fi doesn’t follow human logic in terms of distances. Within a certain range where signals are consistently strong (or weak) to a certain extent, devices might not see anything better or worse between closer or farther broadcasters.
In my experience, via testing hundreds of hardware devices, the seamless hand-off is almost always hit or miss. It varies depending on your existing router and your clients, and other factors.
Seamless handoff in a non-mesh setup
There’s a chance you can get seamless hand-off out of a router + AP or router + extender combo mentioned above. However, this function tends to work better in a mesh system.
Some extenders can turn an existing Wi-Fi network into a “mesh” by offering dedicated backhaul and supposedly seamless hands-off — more on backhaul below. Examples of these are the Nighthawk Mesh Extenders from Netgear — the EX8000 and EX7500.
But one thing is for sure; you’ll still need to re-setup these extenders (or APs) each time you change your Wi-Fi network’s name or password.
And since they work as independent broadcasters, there’s a chance they also cause interference. By the way, even a dedicated wireless backhaul is still far less reliable than a wired one.
Generally, don’t expect to have a real mesh system if you use extenders in your network. But, again, a combo of a router plus a couple of access points, when set up properly, can work similarly to a real mesh system.
3. Better performance
In a mesh network, all the hubs work together as a single unified Wi-Fi network. As a result, they leverage one another’s Wi-Fi signals to deliver the best efficiency instead of working independently.
For this reason, a mesh will also have better performance and reliability compared with using a bunch of extenders (or APs) together.
Note, again, that using network cables to link the hubs — a practice called “wired backhaul” — is by far the best way to build a home mesh Wi-Fi system. That’s because a wireless mesh will likely suffer from signal loss.
Signal loss: The biggest drawback of (dual-band) wireless mesh
When you wirelessly link Wi-Fi broadcasters together, you will have to deal with signal degradation over distance and, if you use dual-band hardware, a phenomenon called signal loss.
Signal loss happens when a hub’s wireless band receives and rebroadcasts Wi-Fi signals at the same time. Having to do two things simultaneously, it loses at least 50 percent of its efficiency toward the receiver.
(Signal loss has nothing to do with the Wi-Fi indicator on a client — you have it even when you’re getting a full-bar Wi-Fi signal on your phone.)
Specifically, in a dual-stream (2×2) Wi-Fi system, such as the Linksys Velop Dual-Band, all hubs can deliver up to 867 Mbps on the 5GHz band. A 5GHz client connected to a satellite hub will get 433 Mbps from it at most, or half the speed than connecting to the main router.
(Signal loss won’t happen when you get either of the two bands to work exclusively as backhaul. But in this case, your system will be slow due to the speed limitation of the 2.4 GHz band.)
By the way, these are theoretical speeds. In real-world usage, the numbers are much lower due to distance, interference, and overheads.
For this reason, avoid using cheap extenders of slow Wi-Fi standards since, after the signal loss, the actual Wi-Fi speed is too sluggish to be useful.
Networking vendors resort to Wi-Fi systems (and extenders) with an additional 5GHz band (5GHz + 5GHz + 2.4GHz) to reduce signal loss.
Netgear is the pioneer on this front with the Orbi product line’s introduction, which dedicates the second 5 GHz band to linking the hubs. This band is called the dedicated backhaul, and it allows the other two to focus on serving clients.
Even then, you still have to deal with the fact Wi-Fi signals get weaker over the range. So, the best way to combat signal loss and degradation is to set up your system correctly.
Extra: Mesh Wi-Fi system and Wi-Fi 6E
Starting in 2021, we have new hardware that supports Wi-Fi 6E.
Wi-Fi 6E has a new 6GHz band. As a result, for compatibility reasons, all of its hardware (broadcasters and clients) will come with three bands, including 2.4GHz, 5GHz, and 6GHz. It’s a new type of tri-band instead of the traditional tri-band (2.4Ghz + 5GHz + 5Ghz).
Having three different bands, a Wi-Fi 6E broadcaster is not better than a tri-band Wi-Fi 6 counterpart in wireless mesh setup — it has no extra band working as the dedicated backhaul.
At publication, this new standard is still in a very early state. At best, it’s premature to talk about how it pans out in a mesh system. However, you can find out more in my take on the first Wi-Fi 6E routers.
How to best set up a mesh Wi-Fi system
A mesh system often comes in two or three hubs — referred to as 2-pack or 3-pack. One works as the main router that connects to an Internet source, such as a cable modem (or a gateway, or another router), using its WAN port. After that, you can add the satellite hubs to the main router.
Most others require adding the satellite manually via a mobile app or a web interface. After that, they automatically work with the main router hub to form a unified Wi-Fi network.
Rules of connection hardware
A satellite hub must be behind the main router unit of a mesh system. Specifically, it needs to connect to the router directly or indirectly (via a switch or another satellite).
This is generally the case in a wireless setup. But in a wired setup, you won’t have a mesh if you connect the satellite hub to a device in front of the router, like an existing switch or an Internet gateway.
Here’s a simple diagram:
Service line -> Modem or Gateway (*)-> the router unit of the mesh -> switch(es) / satellite unit(s) -> (switches) -> more satellites.
(*) If you use a gateway, make sure you check out the post on double NAT.
Wired backhaul: The only way to get the best performing mesh
The best way to implement a mesh is by using network cables to link the hubs together in a wired backhaul setup. In this case, you’ll always have the best possible Wi-Fi speeds throughout.
You don’t need to worry much about how to arrange the hubs in a wired backhaul setup. Within reason, no matter the distance or placement, you’ll get the same performance.
So, place the hubs in a way they can collectively blanket the entire desired area. By the way, if you have Gigabit-class Internet and want to enjoy it via Wi-Fi, Gigabit (or faster) wired backhaul is a must. That’s to say Powerline (or even MoCA) probably won’t cut it.
In a wired backhaul setup, you can also use switches between hubs or daisy-chain the mesh units together — it allows for flexible hardware placement.
Wireless backhaul: Super convenient but can be temperamental
Running network cables can be hard or even not possible at all. So wireless mesh setups are popular. In this case, how you arrange the hubs is crucial. That’s because, over the air, the connections between them can vary a great deal.
To deal with that, there are two things to consider, distance and topology.
1. The distance
The closer you keep the hubs to each other, the stronger the signal is between them, which translates into faster speeds for clients. The catch is you’ll have less Wi-Fi coverage and probably more interferences.
On the other hand, a longer distance means more extensive coverage, but you’ll end up having a slow Wi-Fi network. If you put the units too far, it will likely use the 2.4GHz as backhaul resulting in a slow network.
It’s always tricky to find the sweet spot that balances between coverage and speed. Generally, if there are no walls in between, you can place a hub between 40 ft (12 m) to 75 ft (23 m) from the main router unit. If there are walls, 30 ft to 40 ft is about the maximum distance.
The easiest way to find out where you should put the satellite is via the signal indicator on your phone or laptop. You want to place the unit where the signal changes from full bars to one bar lower. (If you want to know what those bars mean, I explained Wi-Fi signal strength in this post.)
Ultimately, it’s the speed that matters. If you have a modest broadband connection, you can go a bit crazy on the distance to get the most extensive coverage.
2. The topology
In a mesh network, the topology is how you arrange the hubs. It’s, again, more relevant to the situation where you can not use network cables to link them.
In a wireless setup, signal loss and latency are inevitable. The goal here is how to reduce them. By the way, you only need to worry about topology when you use more than one satellite. Having a 2-pack network? You can skip this part.
The star topology
This one is the recommended topology. It’s where you place the satellites around the primary router. This arrangement ensures each satellite directly connects to the main router, making the Wi-Fi signals hop only once from the router before it gets to the end client.
The daisy-chain topology
The daisy-chain topology refers to when you linearly place the hardware units. As a result, the signal has to hop more than once — from the main router to a satellite hub, then to another satellite hub, etc.– before it gets to the device.
In this case, the net speed will suffer a great deal, and you’ll experience severe lag due to compounded signal loss. In a wireless setup, it’s always a good idea to avoid this topology.
However, if you use tri-band hardware with a dedicated backhaul, the speed will suffer significantly less than the case of dual-band.
Mixing wired and wireless backhaul
In many cases, you can’t use wired backhauls throughput and need that extra wireless hub at the tricky spot.
In this case, keep the following in mind:
- It’s always better to mix wired and wireless backhauls than going pure wireless.
- Only Wi-Fi clients connected to a wireless-backhaul satellite hub will suffer signal loss. Those connected to a wired hub will still enjoy fast and reliable performance.
- It’s best to wire the router to a hub then use another wireless hub (that connects to either.)
- It’s OK to wire the hubs together and having (any of) them connected to the router wirelessly. However, in this case, clients connected to any satellite hub will suffer from signal loss.
- In a mixed setup, how the dedicated wireless backhaul (available only in traditional tri-band hardware) works depends on the vendor. Some specific examples:
How to pick the best mesh Wi-Fi system for your home
Cost aside, there are four things you should consider when getting a Wi-Fi system: hardware units, speed, features, and privacy.
1. Number of hardware units
A home Wi-Fi broadcaster emits signals outward somewhat like a sphere. Conservatively, you can assume each broadcaster can cover about 1500 ft2 (140 m2). Now consider these:
- In a wireless setup, you can’t place the hardware units too far away from each other, as mentioned above.
- In a wired setup, you can totally place them farther so their signals won’t overlap.
Now you can use that to figure out how many broadcasters you will need, both in setting a new mesh or replacing an existing online. Generally:
- If a single broadcaster is almost enough, then a 2-pack will do.
- If a 2-pack of low-end hardware is barely enough, a 2-pack of a higher-end will be perfect.
- If you’re comfortable with a low-end 3-pack, a high-end 2-pack likely won’t cut it — you’ll need a new 3-pack set of a similar higher tier.
It’s always tricky to figure out the number of necessary broadcasters. The good news is you can always start with a 2-pack and add more units later to scale up the coverage.
Speed is, by far, the most critical factor. And this depends a lot on if your home is wired with network cables.
Extra on a high-performing mesh: Tri-band, dual-band, wired backhaul
First, pick a system with the highest possible Wi-Fi specs within budget.
For a fully wireless mesh, make sure you get a system with a dedicated 5GHz backhaul band (tri-band). When possible, use Wi-Fi 6 hardware which is decidedly better than Wi-Fi 5 counterpart for a wireless mesh configuration.
For a wired home (wired backhaul), go with a dual-band set with the highest possible Wi-Fi specs.
Using a tri-band system with wired backhauls is generally overkill. On top of that, keep these in mind:
- Certain tri-band systems, especially the Netgear Orbi, still keep a 5GHz band for backhaul — this band is not available for clients no matter what.
- Generally, purpose-built tri-band systems are tuned for a fully wireless setup — there are those that don’t support wired backhaul at all. That said, when used in a wired backhaul configuration, some might have unexpected bugs.
Generally, for sharing a modest Internet connection (100 Mbps download speed or slower), any mesh system, especially one using the latest Wi-Fi 6 standard, will do. The reason is that even slow Wi-Fi speed is still much faster than that.
However, if you pay for a fast Internet plan — 350 Mbps or higher — you’ll need a system that has a dedicated backhaul band or a top-tier dual-band system.
And if you have an ultra-high-speed internet connection (500 Mbps or faster), you’ll need to run network cables to connect the hubs. There’s no way around this.
Even when you use a tri-band Wi-Fi 6 mesh system, chances are you won’t get full gigabit at the end device unless you use wired backhauls.
Again, with wired backhaul, all you need is a dual-band system with top Wi-Fi speed.
For example, the Asus ZenWiFi AX Mini will deliver excellent sub-Gigabit Wi-Fi rates in a wired setup. If you have Gigabit Internet, a couple of Asus RT-AX8xU units or most dual-band Wi-Fi 6 systems will do.
The feature set of a system means what you can do with your home network. If all you want is to access the Internet, don’t worry too much about features. However, it’s always helpful to have a system that includes built-in online protection.
I’m not a fan of mesh systems (or routers) without a web interface since they don’t offer users full control of the network.
That said, if you want tons of useful features and network settings, use a mesh system from Asus or Synology. The runners-up are those from Netgear or Linksys. Others tend to have a limited amount of features and network settings. In return, they are much easier to set up.
All Wi-Fi systems that require you to register an account and log in to set up and use pose privacy risks. The reason is your network connects to the vendor at all times, and potentially, third parties can keep tabs on what you do online.
Extreme examples of this type of what I’d call “data-mining mesh systems” are those from Google and Amazon. I’d recommend against them even though they might offer reliable performance and ease of use.
All Wi-Fi systems should be the only router in your home. (You can pick one in this frequently updated collection.)
If you already have an existing router, such as the case where you can’t remove the ISP-provided gateway, get a mesh that can work in the access point (AP) mode. In this case, the mesh extends your existing home network without offering any features or special settings.
No matter what setup you decide to go for, two things are always true:
- Using network cables to link the hardware units is the only way to get the best-performing system.
- Wi-Fi is always a matter of nuances, it doesn’t work like when you connect your computer via a network cable. Also, its performance is always worse than what the vendor claims.
That said, get your home wired and don’t expect the world.