You might have heard of Wi-Fi 6E — the extension of the Wi-Fi 6 standard — with lots of buzz words and superlative likes “4K”, “8K”, “ultimate,” “super-fast,” etc.
Rest assured that most of what you’ve heard is marketing hype. Indeed, Wi-Fi 6E sure is not all it’s been cracked up to be.
Don’t get me wrong! It’s still an excellent and valuable addition to existing Wi-Fi bands, just not the way networking vendors or mainstream tech sites want you to believe so that they can sell products or get more views and clicks.
With that out of the way, let’s get real and learn when to spend those hard-earned dollars on this new standard, if at all.
Dong’s note: I first published this piece on May 22, 2020, and updated it on April 6, 2021, to add additional relevant information after months of real-world testing.
Table of Contents
What is Wi-Fi 6E, exactly? It’s a new freeway!
In a nutshell, Wi-Fi 6E is an extension of Wi-Fi 6. What makes it a novelty is that it operates in the all-new 6GHz frequency band while existing Wi-Fi uses the traditional 2.4GHz or 5GHz band that’s been around for more than a decade.
OFDMA and TWT help improve overall Wi-Fi efficiency and mobile clients’ battery life, respectively, over the previous Wi-Fi 5 standards.
In terms of speed, Wi-Fi 6E is the same as Wi-Fi 6. Generally, you’ll get 600Mbps per stream via an 80MHz channel or 1200Mbps via a 160MHz channel.
So then why do we even need Wi-Fi 6E, you might wonder.
The upside of 6E: It’s all about the channel width
We don’t need Wi-Fi 6E. We want it. But let’s back up a bit. To understand Wi-Fi 6E, we first need to know why the existing 5GHz band of Wi-Fi 6 just doesn’t cut it.
The pain of DFS and mixed clients
Wi-Fi transmits data via channels, measured in Megahertz (MHz). If a Wi-Fi band (5GHz, 2.4GHz, or 6GHz) is a freeway, channels are lanes. Wider means more space needed and potentially faster speed.
And to deliver the top performance, Wi-Fi 6 needs to operate in the 160MHz channel width, currently the widest.
And just like a freeway, to get a wider lane, you put two narrow ones together. Generally, a 40MHz channel consists of two contiguous 20MHz ones, 80MHz equals two contiguous 40MHz, and two adjacent 80MHz channels combine into a single 160MHz one.
Consequently, a 160MHz channel gobbles up eight contiguous 20MHz channels. (By the way, if you replace “MHz” with “meter,” you’ll get a better idea of the road analogy I use here.)
As you can imagine, space runs out fast, and on the 5GHz band, we can get about two 160MHz channels. And here’s the most significant issue: Not all 5GHz channels are exclusively used for Wi-Fi. (It’s like a road is not only for cars but also bikes and other types of vehicles.)
Indeed, some channels are reserved for other more consequential applications, including radars, which get the first dibs. A Wi-Fi broadcaster automatically changes to another available, possibly narrower, channel if radar signals are present. (This is like how a car needs to get off a bike lane when a cyclist gets on it.)
For this reason, these shared channels are called Dynamic Frequency Selection or DFS. When the DFS channel switching occurs, clients will be briefly disconnected from the Wi-Fi network.
And here’s the fact: On the 5GHz band, you can not have a 160MHz channel without using DFS — there are just not enough contiguous non-DFS sub-channels to form the 160MHz width.
(To put things in perspective, if you want to pull an Airbus 380 on a freeway, you’ll have to use all of the lanes and even the shoulder to make a single “lane” for the job. The point is don’t count on the space availability at all times — something likely will have to give.)
In other words, 5GHz 160MHz channels are either fully or partially DFS, as you can see in the diagram below.
The 5.9GHz portion
Up to late 2021, the 5GHz band has enough space for just two 160MHz channels. Both require DFS sub-channels.
It’s expected that starting in 2022, this band will get a third DFS-free 160MHz channel when devices supporting the 5.9GHz portion of the spectrum are available.
But even then the 5GHz band is still limited in 160MHz channel width support.
As a result, when you live within tens of miles of an airport or weather radar station, your Wi-Fi 6 router likely appears not as “reliable” as you’d like — you’ll get brief disconnections now and then. That is especially painful when you play online games or use video conferencing often.
Even if that doesn’t bother you, keep in mind that many existing Wi-Fi clients only use 40MHz or 20MHz channels. So, all home Wi-Fi networks have to struggle between compatibility and performance.
Wi-Fi cheatsheet: The basics of current standards
|Common Name||Standard||Availability||Top Speed per Stream||Operating |
|Security Protocol||Frequency Bands||Status|
|N/A||802.11g||2003||54Mbps||20 MHz||Open |
or Wireless N
|60 GHz||Limited Use|
|Wi-Fi 7||802.11be||2023 |
6GHz band to the rescue
Wi-Fi 6E deals with this spectrum shortage and problem by using an entirely new frequency band — the 6GHz with 1200MHz wireless spectrum. That opens hardware up to large Wi-Fi-exclusive airspace, including seven 160MHz or fourteen 80MHz channels.
As a result, Wi-Fi 6E devices will operate freely without the need to accommodate older Wi-Fi standards or spectrum regulations.
In other words, with Wi-Fi 6E, your devices don’t need to bother with 20MHz, 40MHz, or even 80MHz anymore. (It’s like a brand-new freeway with special lanes optimized for speed.)
On top of that, you won’t have to be concerned about the potential sporadic, brief disconnections caused by radar signals.
(And in my experience, so far, Wi-Fi 6E clients — there are currently just a couple of them — indeed can connect at top negotiated speeds and deliver impressive sustained throughput rates. You can read more about this in my reviews of Wi-Fi 6E routers.)
So to recap, if a Wi-Fi band is a freeway, then channels are lanes, and we have this crude analogy:
- The 2.4GHz is like a road that includes only small lanes for bikes.
- The 5GHz is a freeway with lanes for bikes, cars, buses, and trucks.
- The 6GHz (Wi-Fi 6E) only has special tracks for a high-speed rail system.
And that brings us to the main shortcomings of Wi-Fi 6E.
Wi-Fi 6E’s shortcomings
Yes, this is the “get real” part. Wi-Fi 6E has a fair share of drawbacks. It’s not the end-all-be-all of Wi-Fi.
Wi-Fi 6E vs. Wi-Fi 6: New hardware required
To use the new 6GHz band, you’ll need a broadcaster, like a router, and a client that supports it, such as a phone, laptop, or desktop adapter card. No existing Wi-Fi equipment, including the latest Wi-Fi 6 routers, works with this band. (This is like you can’t drive a car or ride a bike on rail tracks.)
Initially, it was rumored that some new Wi-Fi 6 routers already have Wi-Fi 6E-ready hardware to be activated later via firmware updates. However, by the end of 2020, this proved to be completely false.
This shortcoming is the same as the move from the single-band (2.4GHz) to dual-band (2.4GHz + 5GHz) that took place back when Wi-Fi 4 debuted in 2009.
Extra: Wi-Fi 6E brings in a new type of tri-band equipment
Like the dual-band case, for backward compatibility, you can expect any Wi-Fi 6E-capable router to have a 5GHz band, and likely a 2.4GHz band, built-in. In other words, it will be a tri-band router.
Yes, we have existing tri-band broadcasters — like the Asus GT-AX11000, Netgear RAX200, or TP-Link AX11000 — but they all have one 2.4GHz band and two 5GHz bands, primarily to address the bandwidth issue.
In other words, traditional tri-band broadcasters of Wi-Fi 5 or Wi-Fi 6 standards have an additional 5Ghz band. Each of the 5GHz bands occupies half of the band’s spectrum, called upper and lower channels.
On the other hand, a Wi-Fi 6E broadcaster needs all three bands — 2.4Ghz +5GHz +6GHz, each occupying the band’s entire spectrum — to be compatible with all existing and future devices.
(Come to think about it. We might find quad-band routers in the future — those supporting Wi-Fi 6E with an additional 5GHz or 6GHz band.)
Since a Wi-Fi connection always takes place in a single band at a time, up to late 2020, we only needed dual-band clients (2.4GHz + 5GHz). With the 6GHz band’s availability, new and upcoming Wi-Fi receivers will likely also be tri-band (2.4GHz + 5GHz + 6GHz).
(Indeed, all Wi-Fi 6E clients — more below — I’ve been working with indeed have this tri-band configuration.)
The reason is for the 6GHz band to be successfully adopted, networking vendors need to keep devices compatible, regardless of the Wi-Fi frequencies being available at any given time. And incorporating multiple bands within the hardware is the only way to achieve that.
Wi-Fi 6E’s second major shortcoming: Much shorter range
Higher frequencies always mean shorter radio broadcasting ranges: FM and AM radio stations broadcast much lower frequencies than Wi-Fi.
The 5GHz band has a shorter range than that of the 2.4GHz one. So, naturally, the 6GHz band is likely behind the former.
Of course, this assumes that the 6GHz will use the same power level (dBm) as existing bands since more power can compensate for the higher frequency.
For now, it’s safe to assume that, in the US, the 6GHz uses the same 30dBm power limit, which is similar to the 5GHz case. And with that, in my real-world experience, Wi-Fi 6E has nothing to call mom so far in terms of coverage.
Indeed, I used two Samsung S21 Ultras — the only fully working Wi-Fi 6E device on the market by mid-2021 — to try out the ranges of the Netgear RAXE500 and Asus GT-AXE11000. And the result was quite interesting.
(I generally don’t use phones or apps for Wi-Fi testing, so this is just an anecdotal experiment. More on that in this post.)
The photos above and below were taken when I placed the two phones precisely 45 feet (14 m) away from the RAXE500 within the line of sight.
You’ll note how the 5GHz band has much better signal strength — the bars — and negotiated speed than the 6GHz. (They were the same when I used the Asus GT-AXE11000, by the way.)
It’s worth noting that the numbers you see in the photos don’t mean much in terms of real-world performance. They are just indicators.
After extensive anecdotal testing, though, I’d say that the 6GHz has about 70 percent of the 5GHz range in an open space. If you place the receiver behind a wall, that number now reduces to 60 percent or even just half.
This band might evolve in the future. You can follow my reviews of Wi-Fi 6E devices to see how it pans out in real-world usage over time. But for now, it’s quite clear that the 6GHz can’t penetrate thick objects very well.
And for that reason, the 6GHz band likely will not spell the end of 2.4GHz, which has the best range. It will not go away any time soon, if at all.
The short range is not a big deal if you live in a small, open house. However, it will make the 6GHz a terrible choice as the backhaul band for a large-area mesh system.
And finally, another obvious shortcoming of Wi-Fi 6E is the cost.
Tri-band and quad-band hardware require more materials and sure will be more expensive. Again, remember that you need both broadcasters and clients of the same standard to enjoy Wi-Fi 6E.
Those new Wi-Fi 6E routers I mentioned in this post are among the most expensive single Wi-Fi broadcasters, starting at $550 apiece. You’ll find even more expensive devices in the near future.
When can I see real Wi-Fi 6E hardware?
Right now, if you want. But it’s just not worth the cost. Not yet.
In early 2021, the Wi-Fi Alliance launched the Wi-Fi 6E certification program. That doesn’t mean all hardware variants are immediately certified, however, and they sure are not. But you can find them now. The certification is just a matter of firmware.
So far, there are a growing number of Wi-Fi 6E routers, and they all proved in my testing to work well, even with non-6GHz clients. Soon enough, you’ll see more routers from different networking vendors.
On the side of clients, other than getting phones or computers that have 6GHz built-in, you can upgrade a Windows computer using the Intel AX210 chip.
Both Intel and Microsoft seem to only support the 6GHz band of the tri-band AX210 Wi-Fi 6E chip on Windows 11. If you want to use it with Windows 10, check out this post for special driver software and detailed instructions on how to make it work.
At this rate, though, Wi-Fi 6E will soon be adopted and certified by the end of 2021 by the major parties involved. And only then you’ll see more clients.
That said, you’ll be able to experience Wi-Fi 6E sometime in 2021. How that experience turns out depends on many things, including firmware and software drivers on both sides (broadcasters and clients).
In a sentence, Wi-Fi 6E equals fast Wi-Fi 6 speeds at a close range via an all-new 6GHz frequency band.
Wi-Fi 6E is not entirely better (or worse) than Wi-Fi 6. It’s just an additional option, applicable to certain situations.
And the new wireless standard is here in limited options. Realistically, 2022 is likely the earliest time when Wi-Fi 6E plays a meaningful role in daily life.
When it comes to Wi-Fi, it’s always getting connected at the time of need and not having the latest and greatest that matters. And for the former, the existing 2.4GHz and 5GHz bands will last a long time.
Think about it, 5GHz has been out for more than a decade, and the 2.4GHz has never come even close to disappearing — it might never will. The 6GHz will be the same. It’s an additional band that’s not meant to replace anything. There’s no need to rush to upgrade.
To put things in perspective, that’s like we’ll likely never ditch the traditional bicycle or gas cars when EVs are the new trend today. All will remain options for different needs, albeit at different usage levels.
Here’s something interesting: As more devices support the new 6GHz bands, the other two (2.4Ghz and 5GHz) will be less congested. So the addition of Wi-Fi 6E is a win-win for both new and old equipment.
That said, don’t hold your breath and wait for Wi-Fi 6E. Go ahead and get the equipment that serves your needs today.
It’s always a good idea to give a new standard some time to fully mature before upgrading to it. That’s it if you ever need to upgrade at all proactively.